The Most Important Herbs Used in the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Traditional Medicine

Abstract

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or venereal diseases are transmitted through various methods of sexual intercourse (oral, vaginal, and anal). The predisposition to this type of diseases and infections depends on the immunity system of the body, so the lower the immunity system’s strength, the greater the risk of Sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The most important pathogenic causes of STIs include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Phytochemical investigations have shown that medicinal plants are a rich source of antioxidant compounds, biologically active compounds, phenols, etc. They can have an inhibitory effect on germs and infectious viruses and are very important for a variety of parasitic diseases, microbial infections, and STIs. Some of the most important medicinal plants that produce inhibitory effects on the growth and proliferation of pathogenic agents of the STIs were reported in the present article. Based on the results obtained from the review of numerous articles indexed in the databases the Institute for Scientific Information, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, etc., a number of plants have been reported to be used in the treatment and prevention of genital tract diseases and STIs, and to produce antiviral and antimicrobial effects, including Taxillus, Aristolochia, Syzygium cumini, Albizia adianthifolia, Bidens pilosa, Carica papaya, Ranunculus, Peltophorum africanum, Vachellia karroo, Rhoicissus tridentate, Houttuynia cordata, Panax notoginseng, Nelumbo nucifera, Astragalus, Hypericum aethiopicum, Spondias mombin, Jatropha zeyheri, Ximenia caffra, Trichilia dregeana, Clematis brachiate, Tabernaemontana, Sarcophyton. Phytochemical investigations have examined the therapeutic and clinical effects of medicinal plants, and the use of their active ingredients to produce herbal drugs has been addressed. The results of phytochemical investigations have shown that the most important compounds of these plants include quercetin, isoquercitrin, Dammarane-type saponin, flavonoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, astragalosides, flavonoids and polysaccharides, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-pinene, quercetin, myricetin and luteolin flavonoids, β-pinene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, ledene, m-menthane, linalyl acetate and 3-carene. β-sitosterol, lupeol, lupeol, sitosterol, spathulenol, β-sitostenone,

References
[1] Wardlaw, A. M. and Agrawal, A. F. (2018). Sexual conflict and sexually transmitted infections (STIs): coevolution of sexually antagonistic host traits with an STI. The American Naturalist, vol. 193, no. 1, p. E000.

[2] Wardlaw, A. M. and Agrawal, A. F. (2018). Sexual conflict and STIs: coevolution of sexually antagonistic host traits with a sexually transmitted infection. bioRxiv 203695

[3] Weinstock, H., Berman, S., and Cates, Jr., W. (2004). Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. .10–6

[4] Hurst, G. D. D., Sharpe, R. G., Broomfield, A. H., et al. (1995). Sexually transmitted disease in a promiscuous insect, Adalia bipunctata. Ecological Entomology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. .236–230

[5] Fenton, K. A. and Lowndes, C. M. (2004). Recent trends in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the European Union. Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. .263–255

[6] Gerbase, A. C., Rowley, J. T., and Mertens, T. E. (1998). Global epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases. The Lancet, vol. 351, pp. S2–S4.

[7] May, R. M. and Anderson, R. M. (1979). Population biology of infectious diseases: Part II. Nature, vol. 280, no. 5722, p. .455

[8] Hunt, C. W. (1989). Migrant labor and sexually transmitted disease: AIDS in Africa. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. .373–353

[9] Levine, G. I. (1991). Sexually transmitted parasitic diseases. Primary Care, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. .128–101

[10] Santana, N., Santos, T., Sato, A., et al. (2018). Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 73, pp. .335–334

[11] Peder, L., Nascimento, B., Plewka, J., et al. (2018). Prevalence and predictors associated with sexually transmitted infections in patients in Southern Brazil. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 73, p. .335

[12] Giesecke, J. (2017). Modern Infectious Disease Epidemiology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

[13] Geremew, R. A., Agizie, B. M., and Bashaw, A. A., et al. (2017). Prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) and associated factors among symptomatic patients attending Gondar Town hospitals and health centers. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. .600–589

[14] Berec, L., Janoušková, E., and Theuer, M. (2017). Sexually transmitted infections and mate-finding Allee effects. Theoretical Population Biology, vol. 114, pp. .69–59

[15] Morris, M. C., Rogers, P. A., and Kinghorn, G. R. (2001). Is bacterial vaginosis a sexually transmitted infection? Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. .68–63

[16] Allsworth, J. E., Lewis, V. A., and Peipert, J. F. (2008). Viral sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis: 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 791– .796

[17] Fenton, K. A., Korovessis, C., Johnson, A. M., et al. (2001). Sexual behaviour in Britain: reported sexually transmitted infections and prevalent genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9296, pp. .1854–1851

[18] Thompson, S. E. and Washington, A. E. (1983). Epidemiology of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 5, p. .96

[19] Wasserheit, J. N. (1992). Epidemiological synergy. Interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. .77–61

[20] Simonsen, J. N., Cameron, W., Gakinya, M. N., et al. (1988). Human immunodeficiency virus infection among men with sexually transmitted diseases. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 319, no. 5, pp. .278–274

[21] Desclaux, A., de Lamballerie, X., Leparc-Goffart, I., et al. (2018). Probable sexually transmitted zika virus infection in a pregnant woman. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 378, no. 15, pp. .1460–1458

[22] Kojima, N. and Klausner, J. D. (2018). Improving management of sexually transmitted infections in those who use pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Aids, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. .275–272

[23] Okumura, C. Y., Baum, L. G., and Johnson, P. J. (2008). Galectin−1 on cervical epithelial cells is a receptor for the sexually transmitted human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Cellular Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. .2090–2078

[24] Håkansson, C., Thorén, K., Norkrans, G., et al. (1984). Intestinal parasitic infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in asymptomatic homosexual men. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. .202–199

[25] Conrad, M., Zubacova, Z., Dunn, L. A., et al. (2011). Microsatellite polymorphism in the sexually transmitted human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis indicates a genetically diverse parasite. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. .38–30

[26] Carlton, J. M., Hirt, R. P., Silva, J. C., et al. (2007). Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. Science, vol. 315, no. 5809, pp. .212–207

[27] World Health Organization. (2011). Prevalence and incidence of selected sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis and Trichomonas vaginalis: methods and results used by WHO to generate 2005 estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization.

[28] Van Der Pol, B. (2007). Trichomonas vaginalis infection: the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection receives the least public health attention. Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. .25–23

[29] Stemmer, S. M., Mordechai, E., Adelson, M. E., et al. (2018). Trichomonas vaginalis is most frequently detected in women at the age of peri-/premenopause: an unusual pattern for a sexually transmitted pathogen. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 218, no. 3, pp. 328.e1–328, e13.

[30] Wang, C. C., McClelland, R. S., Reilly, M., et al. (2001). The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 183, no. 7, pp. .1022–1017

[31] Sobel, J. D. (1990). Vaginal infections in adult women. Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. .1602–1573

[32] Abdelaziz, Z. A., Ibrahim, M. E., Bilal, N. E., et al. (2014). Vaginal infections among pregnant women at Omdurman Maternity Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. .497–490

[33] Balkus, J. E., Manhart, L. E., Lee, J., et al. (2016). Periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections
may reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted bacterial infections. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 213, no. 12, pp. .1937–1932

[34] Alcaide, M. L., Strbo, N., Romero, L., et al. (2016). Bacterial vaginosis is associated with loss of gamma delta T cells in the female reproductive tract in women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A cross sectional study. PLOS ONE, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. e0153045.

[35] Chen, C., Song, X., Wei, W., et al. (2017). The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases. Nature Communications, vol. 8, no. 1, p. .875

[36] Fridkin, S. K. and Jarvis, W. R. (1996). Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. .511–499

[37] De Bernardis, F., Liu, H., O’Mahony, R., et al. (2007). Human domain antibodies against virulence traits of Candida albicans inhibit fungus adherence to vaginal epithelium and protect against experimental vaginal candidiasis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. .157–149

[38] Badiee, P., Kordbacheh, P., Alborzi, A., et al. (2005). Fungal infections in solid organ recipients. Experimental and Clinical Transplantation, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. .389–385

[39] Witkin, S. S. (2015). The vaginal microbiome, vaginal anti−microbial defence mechanisms and the clinical challenge of reducing infection−related preterm birth. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. .218–213

[40] Passmore, J.-A. S. and Jaspan, H. B. (2018). Vaginal microbes, inflammation, and HIV risk in African women. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. .484–483

[41] Donati, L., Di Vico, A., Nucci, M., et al. (2010). Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 281, no. 4, pp. .600–589

[42] Azu, M. N., Richter, S., and Aniteye, P. (2018). Ghanaian men living with sexual transmitted infections: knowledge and impact on treatment seeking behaviour-a qualitative study. African Journal of Reproductive Health, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. .32–24

[43] Desmennu, A. T., Titiloye, M. A., and Owoaje, E. T. (2018). Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health seeking behaviour of street youths in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Health Sciences, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. .187–180

[44] Mulaudzi, R. B., Ndhlala, A. R., and Van Staden, J. (2015). Ethnopharmacological evaluation of a traditional herbal remedy used to treat gonorrhoea in Limpopo province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, vol. 97, pp. .122–117

[45] Ozen, B. and Baser, M. (2017). Vaginal candidiasis infection treated using apple cider vinegar: a case report. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, vol. 23, no. .7

[46] Hayajneh, F. M. F., Jalal, M., Zakaria, H., et al. (2018). Anticoccidial effect of apple cider vinegar on broiler chicken: an organic treatment to measure anti-oxidant effect. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. .369–361

[47] Khezri, S. S., Saidpour, A., Hosseinzadeh, N., et al. (2018). Beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar on weight management, Visceral Adiposity Index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 43, pp. .102–95

[48] Press, S. (2015). Do-it-yourself herbal medicine: home-crafted remedies for health and beauty. Berkeley, CA: Arcas Publishing.

[49] Luqman, S., Dwivedi, G. R., Darokar, M. P., et al. (2007). Potential of rosemary oil to be used in drug-resistant infections. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. .59–54

[50] Jiang, Y., Wu, N., Fu, Y. J., et al. (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of rosemary. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. .68–63

[51] Issabeagloo, E., Kermanizadeh, P., Taghizadieh, M., et al. (2012). Antimicrobial effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils against Staphylococcus spp. African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 6, no. 23, pp. .5042–5039

[52] Ojeda-Sana, A. M., van Barenb, C. M., Elechosa, M. A., et al. (2013). New insights into antibacterial and antioxidant activities of rosemary essential oils and their main components. Food Control, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. .195–189

[53] Mohsenipour, Z. and Hassanshahian, M. (2015). The effects of Allium sativum extracts on biofilm formation and activities of six pathogenic bacteria. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, vol. 8, no. 8, e18971.

[54] Mahady, G. B. (2005). Medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections. Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 11, no. 19, pp. .2427–2405

[55] Goncagul, G. and Ayaz, E. (2010). Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum). Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. .93–91

[56] Oloke, J., Odelade, K., and Oladeji, O. (2017). Characterization and antimicrobial analysis of flavonoids in vernonia amygdalina: a common chewing stick in southwestern Nigeria. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 7, no. 3, p. .149

[57] Markum, E. and Baillie, J. (2012). Combination of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia and iodine in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. .354–349

[58] Fouladvand, M., Khorami, S., Naeimi, B., et al. (2016). Evaluation of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia). Tibb-i junūb, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. .1269–1262

[59] Sinha, D. J., Vasudeva, A., Gowhar, O., et al. (2015). Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Azadirachta indica (Neem), Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil), Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: an in-vitro study. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. .474–469

[60] Eldin, H. M. E. and Badawy, A. F. (2015). In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. .473–465

[61] Loughrin, J. H. and Kasperbauer, M. J. (2001). Light reflected from colored mulches affects aroma and phenol content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. .1335–1331

[62] Kayode, J. and Kayode, G. M. (2008). Ethnomedicinal survey of botanicals used in treating sexually transmitted diseases in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, vol. 2008, no. 1, p. .7

[63] Zandi, K., Zadeh, M. A., Sartavi, K., et al. (2007). Antiviral activity of aloe Vera against herpes simplex virus type 2: an in vitro study. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 6, no. .15

[64] Talwar, G. P. (2018). Development of a unique polyherbal formulation BASANT endowed with wide spectrum action on sexually transmitted infections and capability of restoring healthy vagina. SciFed Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 2, no. .1

[65] Haroon, S. M., Shahid, S., Ammar Hussain, S., et al. (2018). Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activity of Flower of Aloe vera and Leaf Extract of Aloe ferox. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 14, pp. .196–191

[66] Sushen, U., Unnithan, C. R., Rajan, S., et al. (2017). Aloe vera: a potential herb used as traditional medicine by tribal people of Kondagatu and Purudu of Karimnagar District, Telangana state, India. and their preparative methods. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. .831–820

[67] Mgbeje, B. I. O., Asenye, E. M., Iwara, I. A., et al. (2016). Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of n-hexane fraction of Heinsia crinita crude leaf extracts. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. .197–185

[68] Rezaie, P., Mazidi, M., and Nematy, M. (2015). Ghrelin, food intake, and botanical extracts: a review. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, vol. 5, no. 4, p. .271

[69] Dinda, B., Kyriakopoulos, A. M., Dinda, S., et al. (2016). Cornus mas L.(cornelian cherry), an important European and Asian traditional food and medicine: ethnomedicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology for its commercial utilization in drug industry. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 193, pp. .690–670

[70] Moldovan, B., Filip, A., Clichici, S., et al. (2016). Antioxidant activity of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits extract and the in vivo evaluation of its anti-inflammatory effects. Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 26, pp. 77–87.

[71] Webberley, K. M. and Hurst, G. D. (2002). The effect of aggregative overwintering on an insect sexually transmitted parasite system. Journal of Parasitology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. .712–707

[72] Ayehunie, S., Wang, Y.-Y., Landry, T., et al. (2018). Hyperosmolal vaginal lubricants markedly reduce epithelial barrier properties in a three-dimensional vaginal epithelium model. Toxicology Reports, vol. 5, pp. .140–134

[73] Deryabin, D. G. and Tolmacheva, A. A. (2015). Antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing molecular composition derived from quercus cortex (oak bark) extract. Molecules, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. .17108–17093

[74] Chahardooli, M. and Khodadadi, E. (2014). The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using OAK fruit extract and the investigation of their anti-microbial activities against nosocomial infection agents. Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 27–33 [in Persian].

[75] Abu-Jafar, A. and Huleihel, M. (2017). Antiviral activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves ethanolic extract on herpes viruses infection. International Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 1, pp. 1–9.

[76] Maroyi, A. (2017). Exotic plants in indigenous pharmacopoeia of south-central Zimbabwe: traditional knowledge of herbal medicines. Research Journal of Botany, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. .52–46

[77] Ghareeb, M. A., Habib, M. R., Mossalem, H. S., et al. (2018). Phytochemical analysis
of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves extracts and testing its antimicrobial and schistosomicidal activities. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, vol. 42, no. 1, p. .16

[78] Trivedi, J., et al. (2019). “Plant-Derived Molecules in Managing HIV Infection,” in New Look to Phytomedicine, pp. 273–298. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

[79] Ryz, N. R., Remillard, D. J., and Russo, E. B. (2017) Cannabis roots: a traditional therapy with future potential for treating inflammation and pain. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. .216–210

[80] Ashfaq, U. A., Javed, T., Rehman, S., et al. (2011). Inhibition of HCV 3a core gene through Silymarin and its fractions. Virology Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, p. .153

[81] Menéndez-Perdomo, I. M. and Sánchez-Lamar, Á. (2017). Phyllanthus plants in photoprotection: a broad spectrum of molecular mechanisms. Pharmacophore, vol. 8, no. .3

[82] Dashtdar, M., Dashtdar, M. R., Dashtdar, B., et al. (2013). In-vitro, anti-bacterial activities of aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu (LF) Willd, Castanea sativa, Ephedra sinica stapf and shilajita mumiyo against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Journal of Pharmacopuncture, vol. 16, no. 2: pp. .22–15

[83] Caveney, S., Charlet, D. A., Freitag, H., et al. (2001). New observations on the secondary chemistry of world Ephedra (Ephedraceae). American Journal of Botany, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. .1208–1199

[84] Kmail, A., Lyoussi, B., Zaidet, H., et al. (2017). In vitro evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Asparagus aphyllus L., Crataegus azarolus L., and Ephedra alata Decne. in monocultures and co-cultures of HepG2 and THP-1-derived macrophages. Pharmacognosy Communications, vol. 7, no. 1, p. .24

[85] Kallassy, H. Phytochemistry and biological activities of selected Lebanese plant species (Crataegus azarolus L. and Ephedra campylopoda). PhD Thesis. Université de Limoges, Université Libanaise (Liban), .2017

[86] Park, S. B., Park, G. H., Kim, H. N., et al. (2018). Anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts from the branch of Taxillus yadoriki being parasitic in Neolitsea sericea in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, vol. 104, pp. .7–1

[87] Wink, M. (2012). Medicinal plants: a source of anti-parasitic secondary metabolites. Molecules, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. .12791–12771

[88] Thirumurugan, K. (2010). Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of selected Indian folk medicinal plants. Steroids, vol. 1, p. .7

[89] Naidoo, D., van Vuuren, S. F., van Zyl, R. L., et al. (2013). Plants traditionally used individually and in combination to treat sexually transmitted infections in northern Maputaland, South Africa: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 656–667.

[90] Te, T., Mamba, P., and Adebayo, S. A. (2016). Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity studies of medicinal plants used in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. .1895–1891

[91] Li, W., Wang, X.-H., Luo, Z., et al. (2018). Traditional Chinese medicine as a potential source for HSV-1 therapy by acting on virus or the susceptibility of host. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 19, no. 10, p. 3266.

[92] Van Vuuren, S. and Naidoo, D. (2010). An antimicrobial investigation of plants used traditionally in southern Africa to treat sexually transmitted infections. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 552–558.

[93] Samba, B. M., Kabiné, O., Sahar, T. M., et al. (2015). Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Guinean traditional medicine. Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 3, no. 1–2, pp. 6–10.

[94] Mongalo, N., McGaw, L., Finnie, J., et al. (2017). Pharmacological properties of extracts from six South African medicinal plants used to treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and related infections. South African Journal of Botany, vol. 112, pp. 290–295.

[95] Naidoo, D., Van Vuuren, S., Van Zyl, R., et al. (2013). Plants traditionally used individually and in combination to treat sexually transmitted infections in northern Maputaland, South Africa: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 656–667.

[96] Aberg, J. A., Gallant, J. E., Ghanem, K. G., et al. (2004). Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus: recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. .629–609

[97] Ndubani, P. and Höjer, B. (1999). Traditional healers and the treatment of sexually transmitted illnesses in rural Zambia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. .25–15

[98] Zachariah, R., Nkhoma, W., Harries, A. D., et al. (2002). Health seeking and sexual behaviour in patients with sexually transmitted infections: the importance of traditional healers in Thyolo, Malawi. Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. .129–127

[99] Green, E. C., Jurg, A., and Dgedge, A. (1993). Sexually−transmitted diseases, AIDS and traditional healers in Mozambique. Medical Anthropology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. .281–261

[100] Workowski, K. A. and Bolan, G. A. (2015). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR. Recommendations and reports: morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and Reports, vol. 64, RR-03, p. .1

[101] Van Der Pol, B., Williams, J. A., Orr, D. P., et al. (2005). Prevalence, incidence, natural history, and response to treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among adolescent women. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 192, no. 12, pp. 2039– .2044

[102] Baseman, J. G. and Koutsky, L. A. (2005). The epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections. Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 32, pp. .24–16

[103] Tajallaie-Asl, F., Mardani, M., Shahsavari, S., et al. (2017). Menstruation phytotherapy according to Iran ethnobotanical sources. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. .990–986

[104] Moradi, B., Abbaszadeh, S., Shahsavari, S., et al. (2018). The most useful medicinal herbs to treat diabetes. Biomedical Research and Therapy, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 2538– .2551

[105] Naghdi, N. (2018). Folklore medicinal plants used in liver disease: a review. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, vol. 12, no. .3

[106] Van Vuuren, S. F. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. .472–462

[107] Shale, T. L., Stirk, W. A., and Van Staden, J. (1999). Screening of medicinal plants used in Lesotho for anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. .354–347

[108] Prasad, D. M. R., Izam, A., Khan, Md. M. R. (2012). Jatropha curcas: plant of medical benefits. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. .2699–2691

[109] Naidoo, D. (2014). Safety and efficacy of traditional medicinal plant combinations for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections in Northern Maputaland, South Africa. PhD Thesis.

[110] Tibiri, A., Sawadogo, W. R., Dao, A., et al. (2015). Indigenous Knowledge of Medicinal Plants Among Dozo Hunters: An Ethnobotanical Survey in Niamberla Village, Burkina Faso. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. .303–294

[111] Malterud, K. (2017). Ethnopharmacology, chemistry and biological properties of four Malian medicinal plants. Plants, vol. 6, no. 1, p. .11

[112] Chaleshtori, S., Rokni, N., Rafieian-kopaei, M., et al. (2015). Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil in beef burger. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 817–826.

[113] Ghamari, S., Abbaszadeh, S., Mardani, M., et al. (2017). Identifying medicinal plants affecting the teeth from the Southern district of Ilam province, Iran. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 800.

[114] Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A., Momeni, M., and Bahmani, M. (2013). Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Kurd tribe in Dehloran and Abdanan Districts, Ilam province, Iran. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 10, pp. 368–385.

[115] Moayeri, A., Azimi, M., Karimi, E., et al. (2018). Attenuation of morphine withdrawal syndrome by prosopis farcta extract and its bioactive component luteolin in comparison with clonidine in rats. Medical Science Monitor Basic Research, vol. 24, pp. 151–158.

[116] Bahmani, M., Khaksarian, M., Rafieian-Kopaei M, et al. (2018). Overview of the therapeutic effects of origanum vulgare and hypericum perforatum based on Iran’s ethnopharmacological documents. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1–4.

[117] Tajbakhsh, M., Karimi, A., Tohidpour, A., et al. (2018). The antimicrobial potential of a new derivative of cathelicidin from Bungarus fasciatus against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 128–137.

[118] Abbasi, N., Mohammadpour, S., Karimi, E., et al. (2017). Protective effects of Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss essential oil on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice: Involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid antagonists. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents, vol. 31, pp. 683–689.

[119] Faryadian, S., Sydmohammadi, A., Khosravi, A., et al. (2014). Aqueous extract of echium amoenum elevate csf serotonin and dopamine level in depression rat. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, vol. 7, no. 1. Retrieved from: http: //biomedpharmajournal.org/?p=2875

[120] Shokri, Z., Khoshbi, M., Koohpayeh, A., et al. (2018). Thyroid diseases: pathophysiology and new hopes in treatment with medicinal plants and natural antioxidants. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 473–483.