KnE Social Sciences | The 3rd International Conference on Social and Political Science (ICoSaPS) | pages: 266-274

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1. Background

Children and adults believe that media is the main source for accessing information about sex and sexuality on children. Printed and electronic media bear the news about sexuality both implicitly and explicitly. The high frequency of teenagers accessing sex information will influence their awareness, faith and behavior against the risks either as victim or doer [5,4,19,14]. This is in line with Rice, et al. [16] who note the specific relationship between risky sexual behavior and frequency of internet usage, access points and its demography. Students having smart phones are more likely to commit sexual relations. Though teenagers realize that watching pornographic materials is illegal and against their parents' authority, research by Misha, et al. [15] discovered that boys and girls aged 12 access online pornographic materials due to their curiosity and for the fulfillment of their sexual satisfaction. In accordance with Rice, et al., [16], parents' supervision and control are highly recommended; about one third of parents supervised their teen children's phones and more than a half have control on the internet and content access.

Students own the right to study and to feel safe from menace and danger. Therefore, schools should be able to set up conducive environment endorsing the learning process. Principals have responsibility to ensure that the schools environment is conducive for learning process [6]. The more open the information access through information technology and the liberation of students to utilize cellular phones make schools no longer safe places for students to optimally develop their potentials without any disturbances, particularly from the temptation to using cellular phones for pornographic purposes. Accordingly, principals' leadership upholding the schools' community's ethical and moral values high and capable to endorse the behavior of all schools' community to make the schools safe and pleasant without pornographic menaces is required. The type of such leadership is more popularly known as transformational leadership.

Transformational leadership is one of the best leadership styles, which can significantly determine to what extent technology is integrated at schools. As transformational leaders, principals play important role in the success of implementing schools' initiative and they act as role models for the people whom they lead [2]. This paper evaluates the implementation of transformational leadership principles in eight schools in Sragen Regency to prevent the misuse of cellular phones for pornographic purposes. The principles of leadership in this research refer to Bass [3] who develops “4I”, i.e., Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation and Individual Consideration.

2. Methods

The study is conducted in Sragen Regency, Indonesia. It was selected based on three considerations, i.e., first, Sragen Regency has the lowest Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure Index (GEM) in Central Java, Indonesia (GDI of Sragen in 2012 was 67,23 and 92,13 in 2014) (Ministry of Women Empowerment and Children Protection: 2013 & 2014). Sragen's GEM in 2012 was 57,58 and it increased to 61,75 in 2014. Second, Sragen Regency has implemented Gender Mainstreaming in Education in accordance with The Regulation of Education Minister Number 84 Year 2008 on Gender Mainstreaming in Education, particularly it has implemented gender responsive school program since 2012.

Eight Senior High Schools in Sragen Regency have been intentionally selected based on locations (village or town), and types of school (public or religious school). Based on these criteria, this study was conducted at SMA N 3 Sragen, SMK N 1 Sragen, SMK N 2 Sragen (located in the city center), SMAN 1 Sumberlawang, SMA N 1 Sambungmacan, SMK N 1 Gesi (located in the rural areas). MAN 1 Sragen (a religion-based school located in the city) and MANGondang (a religion-based school located in the village). The data were taken from focus group discussion with informants that are comprised of principals, teachers and students.

This study evaluates the implementation of transformational leadership for preventing IT-based pornography, especially the implementation of principles of transformational leadership. The aspects utilized in assessing the implementation of transformational leadership for preventing IT-based pornography are divided into four categories (see Table 1).

Table 1

Characteristic of transformational leadership and description.

Characteristics of Transformational Leadership Description
Idealized Influence Behaviors that generate a sense of awe, respect, and trust in their leaders.
Inspirational Motivation Behaviors that bring inspiration and commitment to organizational goals overall.
Intellectual Stimulation The leader asks the followers to search for new ideas and creative problem solving and to encourage new approaches to finish the job.
Individual Consideration The leader listens to his followers' achievement and their development need attentively.

Qualitative-descriptive technique is used to analyze the data. It describes and summarizes various situation and condition of the implementation of the four transformational leadership characteristics applied by the eight school principals. The analysis was done by referring to the sort of policy evaluation called single program after only, i.e., observing the implementation of transformational leadership after schools' policy was executed, namely seizing students' cellular phones.

3. Findings and Discussion

This research refers to Bass [3] who stated that transformational leadership comprises four characteristics known as “4Is”, namely Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation and Individual Consideration.

The research result show that for the first principle of transformational leadership, idealized influence, the principals have integrated ethics and morality perspective in schools' vision and mission. By this way, they have been considered to be able to grow on their followers (teachers, employees and students) behavior in the forms of admiration, honor, and trust that their schools are capable of setting their students free from doing actions to utilizing cellular phones for pornographic purposes. The action taken by the principals is by implanting ethical and moral values regarding pornography and its consequences to the teachers, staffs and students by inviting experts to schools. Four schools applied Idealized Influence, i.e., (1) SMA N 1 Sumberlawang conducted socialization through Counseling Services in cooperation with Resort Police and Health Centre every year and conducted Counseling Services to students once a week for one lesson hour; (2) SMK N 1 Gesi conducted socialization about reproduction; (3) SMK N 2 Sragen taught its students on safe internet access; and (4) MAN 1 Sragen conducted socialization about the bad influences of juvenile delinquency by experts.

The second transformational leadership principle is inspirational motivation. The research result indicates three schools applied inspirational motivation, i.e., SMA N 1 Sumberlawang, SMA N 3 Sragen and SMK N 2 Sragen. The three principals stated their expectations on their commitment towards the organization goal clearly, namely making the schools free from pornography. The implementation of the characteristic is related to conducting sudden check on students' cellular phones regarding pornographic contents. In the checking the teachers found some photos of students in naked poses and pornographic pictures and videos. The findings motivated the team (counseling teachers and peer group as the representative of students' organization) in developing enthusiasm and optimism in combating the utilization of cellular phones for pornography.

The third transformational leadership principle is Intellectual Stimulation, namely the leader asks his/her followers to seek for new ideas and problem solutions. The implementation of the characteristic is about defining pornography. However, no school exerted this principle. No school did any action to have common agreement about defining pornography as the reference to make a follow up of their findings. As a result, the schools do not have Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) in classifying pornographic actions. Moreover, they have not developed new ideas to resolve the problems of cellular phones check findings aside from inviting the students' parents to school.

The fourth transformational leadership principle is Individual Consideration, namely a leader listens to his/her followers attentively for their achievement and need. The implementation of the characteristic is related to students undergoing sexual violence. There are five schools conducting the action, i.e., (1) SMA N 1 Sumberlawang conducted Home Visit as the follow up of socialization and cellular phones check; (2) SMA N 1 Sambungmacan conducted Home Visit to problematic students; (3) SMA N 3 Sragen permitted their pregnant student to accomplish her study; (4) SMK N 2 Sragen gave punishment to students keeping indecent photos; (5) MAN 1 Sragen provided counseling services to their students getting involved in premature sexual relations.

Table 2

Fulfillment of principles of transformational leadership in preventing pornography.

Transformational Leadership Principles Transformational Leadership Description
Description Application Action Description
Idealized Influence: Leaders are capable of growing behavioral values on their followers (teachers, staffs and students), i.e., admiration, honor and trust that the schools can set their students free from utilizing cellular phones for pornography. Principals integrated ethical and moral perspectives into the schools' vision and mission. 4 (four schools) Schools implanted ethical and moral values on pornography and its all consequences by inviting some experts. The following are actions taken by the schools:
  • SMA N 1 Sumberlawang: Conducting socialization through counseling services cooperating with Resort Police and Health Center once a week for one lesson hour.

  • SMK N 1 Gesi: Conducting socialization about reproduction health

  • SMK N 2 Sragen: Conducting socialization on safe internet access

  • MAN 1 Sragen: Conducting socialization about bad influences of juvenile delinquencies by experts

Inspirational Motivation: Leaders stated their expectations bearing the commitment towards organizational goals as a whole. Principals conducted sudden cellular phones check backed up by the apparatuses, resort police and STTP2K (Schools' Task Force on Students' Affairs) 3 (Three schools)
  • SMAN 1 Sumberlawang: On the phone checking the teachers found students' photo posing naked.

  • SMA N 3 Sragen: The cellular phone sudden checking was backed up by resort police and STTP2K.

  • SMK N 2 Sragen: The cellular phone check was conducted in sudden

Intellectual Stimulation: Leaders require their followers to seek for new ideas and problem solutions Principals develop definition of pornography and new ideas to solve problems on utilizing cellular phones for pornography None No schools agreed about the definition of pornography as a reference to schools in giving follow ups to the findings. As a result schools do not have SOP in classifying pornographic actions. In addition, new ideas have not been developed aside from inviting the students' parents to school.
Transformational Leadership Principles Transformational Leadership Description
Description Application Action Description
Individual Consideration: Leaders listen to their followers attentively for their achievement and need. Principals listened to their students attentively about their pornographic actions and the achievement of counseling teachers in accompanying students and their parents 5 (Five schools)
  • SMAN 1 Sumberlawang: Conducting Home Visit as the follow up of socialization and cellular phone check

  • SMAN 1 Sambungmacan: Conducting Home Visit to problematic students

  • SMAN 3 Sragen: Permitting the pregnant student to accomplish he study

  • SMKN 2 Sragen: Giving punishment to students keeping indecent photos

  • MAN 1 Sragen: Providing the students having premature sexual relation with counseling services

Results ofthis research show that a number of principals (between 30% to 50%) have applied three “I” of the four “I” of transformational leadership, namely Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, and Individual Consideration; whilst Intellectual Stimulation principle has not been implemented at all. The implementation of transformational leadership is capable of unifying individuals' and collective interests (it is the interest of the whole school community), and implanting sense of responsibility to change and achieve organizational goals, i.e., actualizing schools which are safe and pleasant to students, free from pornographic menaces. This enables the development of more admiration, honor, and trust in the schools' community to their leaders (principals) [7].

With the implementation of such transformational characteristics, leaders can facilitate, endorse and inspire the vision achievement and motivate their followers to have ideals and higher moral values [18,1]. With transformational leadership, according to Seong [17], leaders can develop commitment and organizational capacity to innovate and broaden the capacity of organizational leadership. Transformational leadership, according to Bass et al [3], will effectively actualize the expected result because leaders have clear and collaborative goals.

With transformational leadership, according to Kouzes [10], leaders can pioneer the organization's development since leaders are capable of setting up condition, which inspires all the organization members to get out of various problems. Zeinabadi [21] argued that transformational leaders motivate their followers to work beyond the expectation and activate their needs higher. They also improve the awareness of their followers and their awareness of the importance of the appointed result. Yang [20] stated that the transformational leadership of principals is the key to endorse the school development. This can help schools solve related problems and obtain various levels of improvement over different stages. Transformational leadership is considered a process where leaders and their followers are hand in hand to improve and develop their morality and motivation, so that they can fulfill the highest Maslow's hierarchy namely the needs of self esteem and actualization [9].

Due to the unimplemented Intellectual Stimulation principle, this results on the inability of the schools to develop new ideas in resolving IT-use problems for pornographic purposes. The absence of standardization and ideas to handle the problems of ICT use for pornographic purposes made the handling of IT use for pornographic purposes done merely by inviting the students' parents, seizing their cellular phones, and acquired them to make written statement that they will not do that anymore. Therefore, the developing of new ideas to resolve the problems of IT use (cellular phones) for pornographic purposes is necessarily developed continuously. Thus, schools will be truly safe and pleasant to students to improve their competency without the menace of pornography.

An interesting observation from this study is that ICT potentially influences the performance of leaders. ICT can be used to help complete tasks that require quick and effective solution. In addition, ICT can enable leaders to be easily contacted and consulted for help without being burdened by the obstacles of hierarchy, and ICT can also be utilized to monitor every work and regulate report schedule [13]. Thus, the impact of ICT use in enhancing transformational leadership to resolve the problems of cellular phones for pornographic purposes needs further research. The inability of the principals in implementing Intellectual Stimulation (asking the teachers, employees, and students) to seek for new ideas and problems solutions regarding cellular phones use for pornographic purposes prompts an urgency to conduct further research on the correlation between ICT use and transformational leadership style.

4. Conclusion

Transformational leadership plays its strategic role in preventing IT utilization (cellular phones) for pornographic purposes. The study result reveals that principals have not implemented all the principles of transformational leadership in the prevention of the misuse of cellular phones for pornographic purposes. Out of the four principles of transformational leadership, only three principles were implemented by 30% to 50% of principals in the eight schools studied, i.e., idealized influence, inspirational motivation and individual consideration. Meanwhile, none of the principals implemented intellectual stimulation. The result of research recommends about the necessity of setting up definition standard about pornography and its manifestation on cellular phones and the intervention enabling to empower the students not to utilize cellular phones for pornographic purposes. The resultsof this research underscore the urgency of further enquiry on the impact of ICT development towards transformational leadership style, due to the swift development of ICT contents, which is even faster than principals' ability in implementing transformational leadership.



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