E-Government is a technique of providing government information delivered through internet-based media. The seriousness of Pemprov Jawa Barat in conducting e-Government activity has been proven by their ownership of e-Government Roadmap since 2005 and their winning of Pemeringkatan E-Government Indonesia (PeGI) (Indonesian E-Government Grading). Pemprov Jawa Barat achieved the 1st PeGI awards in 2011-2013 and became the runner-up in 2014-2015. In achieving these awards Pemprov Jawa proves that the e-Government activities have been good in Indonesia. In reality, there is a problem with the implementation of transaction activity between citizen and government. The quantity and quality of human resources is relatively limited and the uneven distribution of infrastructure inhibits this implementation of transaction activity completely.
Considering the description above, the author was interested in knowing more in-depth the process of transaction activity between citizen and government through e-Government in Pemprov Jawa barat. The focus of research is "How efficient is the process of transaction activity between citizen and government through e-Government in Pemprov Jawa Barat?"
This research was conducted using descriptive research method, and qualitative data collection. Descriptive research method just describes a situation or event. This research did not identify or explain relationship, test hypotheses or make predictions (: 24). The sample technique used in this research was purposive sampling, the sampling technique with a certain consideration.
The criteria used in this purposive sampling technique were based on those of Diskominfo as the leading sector in e-Government activity in Pemprov Jawa Barat. Diskominfo provided 10 Local Apparatus Organizations (Organisasi Perangkat Daerah, thereafter called OPDs) deemed as eligible for survey.
Interviews were conducted with the predetermined informants, direct observation on Pemprov jawa Barat, and documentation in which the author collected documents deriving from books, theses, journals, and articles relevant to government's public relations.
Technique of validating data used was triangulation. Technique triangulation used in this research was data source validity. The data source consisted of those considered as having credibility in the topic studied, i.e. the e-government in the terms of communication. Then triangulator was Mr. Heru Sutadi, an Indonesia e-Government observer.
3. Findings and Discussion
A Four-Stage Development model developed by Layne and Lee recommends that e-Government initiatives must be derived and implemented appropriately. A Four-Stage model starts with cataloguing, going on to transaction stage, followed by vertical integration, and eventually horizontal integration (: 6).
After Pemprov Jawa Barat has used internet media appropriately, it continues to develop transaction activity. This transaction activity is a process of interaction between citizen and government, in which interaction is a two-way communication activity between citizen and Pemprov Jawa Barat. The objectives of this activity are, among others, to improve the people's active participation and to encourage the public participation in public policy making.
Basic media used by Pemprov Jawa Barat is website and social media (Twitter and Facebook) because these media have been used by many citizens to share information and interact with each other. For some OPDs (Organisasi Perangkat Daerah) to go beyond just interacting with its citizens, they must make and use other applicationsbesides website. But the most important thing to do by every OPD in Pemprov Jawa Barat is that they must have and use social media, particulary Twitter and Facebook to interact with their public.
The Republic of Indonesia's Presidential Instruction Number 3 of 2003 (thereafter called Inpres RI No.3 of 2003) states that e-Government is the utilization of information and communication technology on government process which will increase efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, and accountability of governance. That transparency activity, according to Krina, can be measured through some transparency measuring tools: 1. Publication of public policy by means of communication, 2. Information presented, 3. Complaint management (: 16-17)
Another transaction activity undertaken between citizen and government makes government active respondent through a two-way communication. A two-way communication is done in a variety of forms including answering questions, confirming, and answering or responding to complaints through social media and website. This activity matches one of the government's public relations functions: to deliver public policy in the form of delivering government information, and providing public services with easy bureaucracy to improve the image of government agencies in the public's eyes.
This transaction activity has been done well, as indicated with the citizen's fairly good response. The good response does not always mean a positive sentence, but it can be the people questioning and complaining more actively. This proves that using e-Government the government interacts with citizen more actively.
Although transaction activity has been done well, unnecessarily there is a barrier or problem. This transaction activity finds some problems with both quantity and quality of human resources. Limited number of human resources and no basic education background of communication science and telecommunication make some human resources not understanding completely the e-Government activities as to what and how they are performing, particularly in providing public services.
The process of transaction between the public and government agencies through e-Government has been conducted in Pemprov Jawa Barat. The activities of transaction in the form of two-way communication are conducted using websites and social media. These activities confirm and answer complaints, questions, and other activities requiring active response from the government. The response received is quite positive as indicated with the increasing number of questions and complaints submitted by the citizens to the government after the implementation of e-Government activities. Although it has been done fairly well, some problems are still found with human resources either quantitatively or qualitatively.
Pemprov Jawa Barat should increase the number of human resources to further improve the public services the government can provide through e-Government. Pemprov Jawa Barat should train human resources on both technique and understanding of e-Government, in order to make the human resources well informed about the activities of e-Government in Pemprov Jawa Barat.