Children's issues in Indonesia are widely reported in various media, which making us aware that it is important to protect our children. There are still people who think that children are like property that can be treated as they please. As a result, the children's rights are ignored because of neglect, violence, and mistreatment. All this time, the children's issues are not a priority and are not considered significant to get the government's attention. Indonesia is one of the cou, soon after the United Nations authorized the Children's Rights Convention in 1989 and the summit conference for Children in New York in 1990. The country guarantees the children's rights to cover: (1) the right to live, including the rights to get good treatment when they get sick; (2) the right to grow, including the rights for education (both formal and informal) as well as the rights for good standard of living related to the physical, mental, spiritual, moral, and social development; (3) the right for protection; including the protection from discrimination, violence, and neglect; and (4) the right for participation, including the children's right to express their opinion on anything related to them . One of the policies that were published later as an attempt to expedite children protection is the policy of Children-Friendly City. This policy was based on The Legislation No. 23 in 2002 on the Children Protection (UUPA) which was then amended with The Legislation No. 35 in 2014 and The Children's Rights Convention (KHA—Konvensi Hak Anak) that gives authority to protect children. Children-Friendly City is a Regency/City that has Children's Rights-based development system through integrating government commitment and resource, society as well as holistic and continuous planned business into their policy, program, and the activities to guarantee the children's rights .
Children-Friendly City can be realized by the related parties including the legislature, judiciary (both regional and national), government institutions (from central government/national to village), children-concerned social institution, business world, academics and society . One of the important roles in Children-Friendly City is business as an opportunity to fulfilling the children's rights. In the society, business is usually related to a company or non-government institution. Article 74 of the Legislation of Limited Liability Company no 40 in 2007 mentions that Limited Liability Company that runs its business in the field of natural resources or related to that has the Social and Environmental Responsibilities which is also called CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility). The companies that are concerned with children's issues are PT. Telkom and XL which through CSR contributed information technology in the form of computer and the facilities. The fundamental problem is whether or not the purpose of using IT through CSR is appropriate for children.
This research was conducted in Surakarta recalling that Surakarta was appointed by the government as the pilot project of Children-Friendly City since 2006. Based on that consideration, the data were expected to be collected, while the primary data were obtained from the results of interview, observation, and FGD with the appointed informant beforehand. The selection of the informants was based on several considerations that are related to children and CSR. The informants for this research were the stakeholders of the Surakarta City Government which was related to Children-Friendly City, while the other ones came from the companies that conducted CSR with children as the target, especially PT. Telkom and XL Company.
The data collecting was conducted interactively covering in-depth interviews, participant observation, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD), while the non-interactive ones included questionnaires, documenting, and non-participant observation. The sampling technique used was Purposive Sampling, the sampling technique based on certain considerations where the person is considered as most knowledgeable on the things we expected, for example, the board of RW (RW is Rukun Warga). It is the area division larger than RT (Rukun Tetangga). Usually a village is divided into RW and RW (consists of several RTs). Surakarta public figures and some people from PT. Telkom and XL who handled CSR also become the informants. Maximum variation technique was also used to get diverse sample from involved parties in Children-Friendly City, while the data validation was done by using the triangulation of source of data and data analysis with data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing.
3. Findings and Discussion
The actions and accountability to advance sustainable development of science and technologies for Children-Friendly City in Surakarta on preserving life will be carried out by maintaining the food system. Food service, specifically food nutrition and the year of 2015 present another opportunity to set a journey toward a sustainable development for all children by 2030, so we need to quickly shed the baggage of malnutrition to make fast progress. The food system can contribute to this effort because it determines the availability and accessibility of diverse nutritious food to the children. Enhancing our food system to deliver healthy diets and improved nutrition is a call to all provincial government in Indonesia, and the study nutrition report rightly calls `nutrition-friendly food systems' to support in assessing progress Children-Friendly City in Surakarta. One area the reports importantly highlight is the lack of data on the nutrition of women and adolescent girls. Well-nourished empowered women are central to eliminating malnutrition entirely and to achieve gender equality .
The idea of Children-Friendly City departed from the result of a research on Children Perception of the Environment conducted by Kevin Lynch, an architect from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research was conducted in 4 cities – Melbourne, Warsaw, Salta, and Mexico City by using observation, interview, and sketching resulted in the characteristics of the best city environment for children which has a community that: is physically and socially strong, has firm and clear regulation, gives opportunity to children; and has education facilities which give children opportunity to learn and investigate their environment and world .
Children-Friendly City is city/regency that guarantees the rights of each child as the citizen of the city/regency. The phrase “the children as the citizens of the city/regency” means that they: (1) have freedom in expressing their opinion either personally or representatively which is related to the policy of the development, the facilities, and the service of the city, (2) have opportunity to participate in the family life and other social communities, (3) get basic health service and education, (4). have access to the qualified service of the city utilities (clean water, playground, school track), safety requirements, health requirements, convenience and comfort requirements, (5) are able to access any services regardless their ethnic, belief, wealth, gender, and disability .
The Children-Friendly City/Regency was established by: (1) providing access to health service, education, clean water, healthy sanitation, and free from the polluted environment; (2) providing the policy and special budget specially for the children; (3) providing safe and comfortable neighborhood to enable the children to grow creatively, to learn, to socially interact, to have good psycho-social growth and cultural expression; (4) enabling the children to have balance in socially and economically, to be protected from environment damage and natural disaster; (5) giving special attention to the children who live and work on the street, sexually exploited, disabled, or without any support from the parents; (6) providing a place for the children to participate in the decision making on things influencing their life directly .
The Children-Friendly City in Surakarta started in 2006 with the excellent program of smart garden establishment in various districts. The establishment of smart garden was also a pilot project for other areas that were going to develop the Children-Friendly City. This program involved several companies in the process with the available facilities to fill in the needs of which one of them was computer network facility with internet. The other facilities were library, playground as well as a stage for art and cultural performances which were free of charge targeted the main the middle and lower class children. Besides computer unit, props, library books, PT. Telkom and XL network also contributed internet access, through CSR, that can be used for the children studying activity.
CSR, according to World Business Council for Sustainable Development, is a continuous commitment of the businessmen to behave ethically and contribute to the economic development as they improve the quality of their staff and families, as well as the local and general community . CSR is a company activity to contribute to the development that has social and economic impact on the stakeholders that are the employees, society, environment, and the stockholders.
However, not all companies are able to understand CSR completely since there still were things a company ignored. On the one hand, CSR will be the embodiment of the company's concern which at last will be the key to the continuation and existence of the company in a neighborhood. This is due to the society and the neighborhood which has accepted it indirectly will welcome the company without being concerned with the things that they think not quite right. Besides, CSR is the company's responsibility for participating in advancing the neighborhood where the company is located.
The term “responsibility” is often used to describe the common belief that business has responsibility to the society that goes beyond their financial responsibility. The company has to be responsible to not only the stockholders but also investors; they have to give answers to the society where they operate and all society. The company's social responsibility aims to serve the society, not as a tool to encourage the business to go forward financially . CSR done by the company has to keep 3 principles that are: profit, people, and planet . A company that is considered perfect is not only the one chasing simply profit economically but also having concern with the environment preservation (planet), and the society welfare (people). The company's mission and ethic code usually determine initiative, form, strategy, and social responsibility standard. The values are internalized into three ideas that are moral, rational, and economic cases. The moral case is whether the organization believes in their obligation toward the society; rational case attempts to work proactively to minimalist the business restriction on the company; economic case aims at adding the company's financial values by keeping the reputation among the stakeholders .
PT. Telkom, located in Solo, is the company with a broad network since it is a group company. It has several subsidiary companies among others are Telkomsel, AS cards, and Simpati. The three of them are divisions of PT. Telkom that run in the same business that is telecommunication business. PT. Telkom located in Solo is the center of several units in Solo's surrounding areas. The work units are divided into areas such as: Wonogiri, Sukoharjo, Karanganyar, Solo, Sragen, Klaten, Boyolali, and Salatiga. The three areas are centered in Solo; therefore PT. Telkom Solo is the entrance gate for proposal both license and cooperation. PT. Telkom has an aid program for the society or CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) because the company cannot continue operating without the support from the society. They are the product consumers although even if they do not use the product from PT. Telkom, they basically can have significant impact on the public.
The cellular company, XL, always has programs to give to society although they have not yet focused on a certain field, they still have the budget. Many companies sometimes do not realize that their programs follow one of the government's policies. They simply run the CSR programs for the society. At the beginning of Children-Friendly City, XL Company supported the government's policy ahead by contributing the Wi-Fi facility without realizing that it is the form of CSR which follows the government's policy. On the other hand, XL Company always establishes cooperation with several parties including schools. Many of the cooperation are in the form of facilities and product. XL did that to keep the existence of the company in the society. The established cooperation networking is the company's existence to be able to get accepted well among society.
CSR implementation in XL Company has two sub divisions: Human Resource (HR) and Youth. HR is the division responsible for public service, usually focused more on the community activities. In practice, XL has cooperation with many community groups, religious groups as well as hobby community group in Solo. These communities often have cooperation with XL through blogs or other forms of communication among the members of the community so that it can be a promotion for the XL products. Youth division has program in cooperation with schools which is the entrance gate to have cooperation with XL Company. All activities related to schools both as sponsor and activity partner; have to go through Youth division. The cooperation has requirements that have to be agreed on at the beginning of the negotiation.
The technology given by PT. Telkom and XL is the informatics technology in the sense of any technology that can help people to make, change, store, communicate and/or spread information (https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teknologi_ informasi). The rapidly developing technology recently has positive and negative impacts on anyone including children, for example, we can access any information globally fast, easily, and cheaply. We can easily get any information we need related to education, social information, and daily goods.
The negative impact is that if we access wrong information, it can be harmful. For example, children can access pictures or pornographic video such as extra-marital sexual intercourse, violence, bullying, or even rape. Children socialize through internet and learn about violence and sex without appropriate filter. To avoid the inappropriate behavior of children, cooperation is expected from several parties such as family that is the significant party to introduce the information technology to children safely. Family is obliged to supervise children in accessing the information so that they can give understanding of what happen in the internet to their children. They need to mentor the children accessing the internet and explain parts of it which are allowed and not allowed for children to see since they have tendency to imitate so it can be dangerous if the internet used by children is allowed to access without any filter.
The government is responsible for monitoring and regulating children's use of internet in disciplined manner. Therefore, the requirement of the regulation for website and media accessed by children is needed. Furthermore, the company of informatics technology should get the appropriate system to counter the website accessed by children. Since the government is responsible for supervising and controlling the internet, a strong regulation on pornographic sites that are inappropriate for children is needed. It is to prevent the children from accessing inappropriate pictures or video. The company providing the informatics technology should be able to create a system that can counter the inappropriate sites for children.
The role of the society also is part of the realization of Children-Friendly City especially in children's behavior supervision. At some points, the society has the rights to warn the children to behave in accordance with the religious as well as social norms. The company providing the computer and internet should also control the use of internet by children so that there is no program in the internet that can give adverse effect on children's behavior. If all parties work together to protect children from the bad influence of informatics technology, Children-Friendly City in Surakarta can be established soon.
The Children-Friendly City is a government program to create a comfortable and safe neighborhood and is completed with supporting infrastructure for children's activities. One of the infrastructures the children need is informatics technology in the form of computers contributed by company that also has responsibility for the Children-Friendly City development. Family, society, government, and company providing the computer and the internet are obliged to supervise its implementation for children so that they are protected from the adverse effect of internet's inappropriate content and the Children-Friendly City can be realized.