Healthy-hygienic behavior or lifestyle in household has ten indicators of whether or not the household is healthy. A disease, according to epidemiological triangle, may occur due to an imbalance between host, agent and environment, so that if a household is not healthy, the possibility of an illness in the household will be great. This healthy hygienic behavior turned out to be one concern of companies engaged in the industry in Indonesia. The company is aware of the importance of corporate responsibility program carried out by the company. Application of corporate responsibility is no longer considered as the company's expense, but as an investment.
One concrete manifestation of social responsibility of the company is the program - a philanthropic program - which originated from a form of corporate concern with the people who have difficulty following the crisis of 1998. Health is one factor that is expensive and difficult to maintain by the lower middle class people. The crisis has led to increasingly weak economic condition of the people. Recognizing the importance of health to people that sometimes cannot be reached by the public prompts some companies to give free medical assistance while promoting health care campaign through disease prevention activities.
The absence of medium selection economically resulting in a decent life with good health standards encourages them to get everything they can to survive. They often live in environments that are actually less appropriate in terms of health and hygiene. To survive, they seek fortune in any halal food, although in terms of hygiene it cannot be said to be healthy and clean completely. For this reason, to meeting the needs of marginalized groups is to encourage the emergence of one of the economic activity that is quite important. In the Tegal community in Jakarta, the culinary industry commonly called food street vendors (warung makanor Warteg) is their main livelihood. Warteg offers a variety of side dishes and vegetables with a relatively affordable price. Buildings are generally narrow warteg about 15-2 meters, equipped with long chairs and are in crowded locations.
Warteg are food stalls frequented by the middle class especially in North Jakarta. Warteg have become small businesses that are no longer dominated by the Tegal community, but anyone who are able and interested in the business.
Based on the background of the above problems, the survey posed this question: How far does their self-concept as small and medium entrepreneurs affect the level of awareness of clean living and healthier food among the street vendors in Jakarta? The reason for revealing the influence of their self-concept as independent variables in this study is related to how the traders have food stalls, judge themselves physically and socially as they care about their health and hygiene.
To elucidate the influence of self-concept of street food venders as entrepreneur who follow a healthy-hygienic lifestyle or behavior. The self-concept in this study included four dimensions: personal, social, ethical, social and family. Meanwhile clean healthy-hygienic lifestyle includes two dimensions: healthy-hygienic lifestyle personally and healthy-hygienic lifestyle in maintaining a clean environment.
1.2. Conceptual Framework
Marginal communities are groups of marginalized people excluded from development, so they do not get an opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the construction, and are usually better known among the general public. Marginal communities are social groups impoverished by development, so usually marginal communities also often become the victims of other society element's and state (authority)'s systematic violence.
On the other hand, marginal economic background encourages citizens to rely on violence as a problem-solving method. It can be seen from a laborer who works with wage subsistence area of the industry that is concentrated in urban areas, and then the peasants who choke structure socio-economic domination of the capitalists, as well as informal sector workers in urban existence is always invited stigmatization, a priori, and all other negative bias of government security forces.
Warteg merchants (pedagang warteg) successfully develop their business and establish ties of kinship with fellow warteg traders leading to their efforts of rapidly advancing and growing rapidly, so they contribute considerably to their economic conditions. Warteg traders managed to increase their revenue far exceeding the outcome of their previous work.
2. Research Method
The quantitative approach to the measurement data used included objective figures and statistics through scientific calculations. These statistics was obtained from a number of people or respondents who gave responses to the survey questions taken as the sample. Data collection technique used in this study was questionnaire. The author has been distributing questionnaires to 71 respondents, the number of respondents taken from the population consisting of 98 merchant stalls along the Kali Sunter Inspection.
The research data obtained from questionnaires were processed and analyzed using validity, reliability test, normality test, and descriptive analysis of data to collect demographic data of respondents, consisting of gender, age, and ethnicity, place of residence, GPA, playground, allowances, and study programs. Furthermore, the author constructed cross tabulation (cross-tabs), correlation analysis and Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) methods with SPSS version 13.
3. Finding and Discussion
3.1. Simple Linear Regression Analysis
Having known no deviation (violation) in the classical assumption, herein after using IBM SPSS 22.0 software, the result of simple linear regression analysis is presented as in Table 1.
|Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients|
Based on output above, obtained a value of 6.284 and the value of b of 0.528. Thus, the simple linear regression equation is as follows Y = 6.284 + 0.528 X. The values of a and b in equation above can be interpreted as follows: a = 6.284, meaning that if the Self-Concept variable is 0, the healthy-hygienic behavior would be 6.284. b = 0.528 meaning that if the Self-Concept variable increases by one, the healthy-hygienic behavior would increase by 0.528 as well. The coefficient of correlation indicates the extent to which the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable. The correlation technique used is the Pearson correlation. Using IBM SPSS 22.0 the correlation analysis was obtained as in Table 2.
|X Konsep Diri||Y Pola Hidup Sehat|
|X Konsep Diri|
|Y Pola Hidup Sehat|
Based on output above, note the correlation coefficient obtained for 0.670. This figure is included into interval of.400 -.700, so it can be said that the relationship between Self Concept of Entrepreneurs and healthy-hygienic behavior is strong and positive. A positive correlation means that if the variable Self Concept of Entrepreneurs improved it will be followed by an increase in awareness of Healthy Behavior, and vice versa if the variable Self Concept for Entrepreneurs lowers it will be followed by a decrease in healthy-hygienic behavior.
The coefficient of determinacy (CD) is the square of correlation coefficient (r) or also known as R-Square. Coefficient of Determinacy (CD) functions to see the extent to which independent variable affects the dependent variable. CD value can be seen in the output Table 3.
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
Based on the output table above, it can be seen that value of CD (R-Square) is 0.449 or 44.9%. This indicates that the variable Self Concept for Small and Medium Entrepreneurs contributes to the healthy-hygienic behavior by 44.9%. Meanwhile the rest of 100% -44.9% = 55.1% is affected by the factors excluded from this study.
Having obtained the model of simple linear regression, coefficients of correlation and of determinacy, hypothesis testing will be conducted to see whether or not independent variable (Self Concept of Enterprise) affects significantly the dependent variable (Healthy-hygienic behavior).
The hypotheses to be tested are:
H0: β = 0 meaning that the Self Concept for Small and Medium Entrepreneurs has no significant effect on Healthy-Hygienic Behavior.
H1: β≠ 0 meaning that Self Concept for Small and Medium Entrepreneurs has significant effect on Healthy-Hygienic Behavior.
The significance level used was α = 0.05 (5%).
The statistical test used is the t test with the output in Table 4.
|Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients|
From the table above, it can be seen that calculation output obtained t (t)-value to test a regression coefficient of 7.504. T-value will be compared with the t-value on t-student distribution table. With α = 0.05, degrees of freedom (db) = n-2 = 71-2 = 69, while a two-sided test obtained t-table values of -1.995 and 1.995. The t statistic and t table values can be depicted in the figure below:
Figure 1 shows a t-value (7.504)> t table (1.995) so H0 is not supported. Thus, H0 and H1 are supported, meaning that Self-Concept for Entrepreneurs has significant effect on Healthy-Hygienic Behavior Tegal food street vendor (Warteg) in Jakarta. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Self-concept of Entrepreneurs has significant effect on it in Jakarta with the effect size of 44.9%. While the rest of 55.1% is affected by other variables excluded from this study.
The use of information technology such as cell phones and the Internet can be a means of establishing a campaign for hygienic healthy behavior among warteg traders. Moreover, the existence of cell phones today is not cost-prohibitive. The food vendors are capable of buying such a device. Mobile phones today have features connected to the Internet. This will enable them to get the information on how the food vendors it should keep clean, both personally and environmentally. The relevant departments are recommended as well to provide such a hotline, email blast or a website that provides information for traders to be able to become entrepreneurs or professional food traders as well as to understand the cleanliness and health.