KnE Social Sciences | The First Economics, Law, Education and Humanities International Conference (The First ELEHIC) | pages: 568–577

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1. Introduction

Two main terms that are closely related to localities for Indonesian nation building, including in West Sumatera as the focus of this paper, are local or region naming as well as the program of cultivating trees, productive crops (avocado `Persea Americana', manggosteen `Garcinia Mangostana', durian `Durio Zibethinus'), and traditional citrus (Nipis `Lat citrus aurantifolia', Purut 'Citrus hystrix DC', Sundai `Big citrus hystrix', and Kesturi `Citrus ambluycarpa'). The problems are both local naming and cultivation program seem to be less important to most parties at least in the last two decades. This means that almost all related parties are not interested to solve the naming and cultivation problems. The government itself has, for example, unconsiouscly changed the region name into the unacceptable one (Roza and Morelent, 2016). And almost all media report the errotion, landslide, and flood in most region of Indonesia everyday. Flood and landslide in Agam (Baso, Sungai Pua, Tanjuang Mutiara) killed a 4 years-old child (http://pekanbaru.tribunnews.com/2018/05/27). There are lack of the cultivation of productive crops in the potential resources of all region in West Sumatera, and most people still cut as well as burn the forest in some parts of the region. https://www.antaranews.com/ berita/688683/ reported that the land and forest fire in Riau reached 680 hectares at the beginning of 2018.

Every region should has its own original name. The name is traditionally expressed in the form of words or phrases of local language. Unfortunately, the name tends to change in the present day, it has mostly been that as if it is in Indonesian. In fact, the new name doesnot belong to either the local language (Minangkabaunese) or Indonesian words or phrases. It also frequently conveys different meaning from that as the original name. The original region name `Alang Laweh', for instance, is now known as `Alang Lawas'. The meaning of the word `Laweh' of Minangkabaunese is the same as `luas' in Indonesian, but the word `Lawas' means `kenangan' as in `Tembang Lawas'. Two provinces that consistently use their origin vocabularies, for instances, for their region names are West Java and Bali (c.f. Higgins, Poerbantanoe, Prihadi).

Then, Indonesia is the world's largest island country or biggest archipelago lying along the equator, with more than seventeen thousand islands. Indonesia-Wikipedia notes that the coastal plains averaging 28 C (82.4 F), the inland and mountain areas averaging 26 C (78.8 F), and the higher mountain regions, 23 C (73.4 F). The area's relative humidity ranges between 70 and 90%. Having the large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. Unfortunately as stated above, there have been common big problems faced by most areas of Indonesia, including West Sumatera until now: errotion, landslide, and flood. Activities of doing illegal logging and abandoning the potency of natural resources, as such the factors that cause the problems are still going on till now.

This paper draws result of two researches. They are dealing with the unprofitable condition of local naming in some region of West Sumatera, especially, in Padang city (Roza and Morelent, 2016) and the promising program of cultivating the traditional citrus (Nipis `Lat citrus aurantifolia', Purut 'Citrus hystrix DC', Sundai `Big citrus hystrix', Kesturi`Citrus ambluycarpa') in Maninjau, West Sumatera (Roza, Har, and Tawakal, 2016 a & b, 2017).

Thus, this paper reported the result of analyzing data for local naming in Padang city that were collected through the use of city map available in the office of Padang major; data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The researchers also reported data as the result of directly accompanied the students during KKN-PPM—July-August 2016, in Maninjau in providing, distributing, and planting the productive crops and traditional citrus in Maninjau, Agam, West Sumatera.

2. Local Naming

Roza (2011a & b, 2012, 2013, 2016) presented papers for Sibi's seminar in Bandung on `the Role of Minangkabaunese in Supporting Minang Culture, Data on Language Decay in West Sumatera (the region naming), and the Role of Regional Language in Increasing the Number of Indonesian Words`. He stated that the cultural fiesta and Minang tradition still apply the use of Minangkabaunese. Unfortunately, there have been naming mistakes of almost all region in West Sumatera. It is assumed that almost 80% of the region names in West Sumatera have been changed into the unacceptable ones. Therefore, in order both the program of supporting Minang culture and of increasing the number of Indonesian words success, the research is needed.

The unacceptable naming is also characterized in general. It is also reported in sosbud.kompasiana.com as the general condition that the students of pharmacy wore blazer having the word farmation , not pharmacy , civil engineering community used civillerz or civilian . There were also cascuser with pertamax, gan, cendol , and bata ; the music festival used soundineering ; soundrenalin, rockevolution, soundzation . This means that there have been problems on both general and specific naming in this country.

Specifically, naming using Minangkabaunese includes not only that related to region, but also related to the other cultural aspects, such as local food (randang, sate), tourism destination (aie tajun, danau), uniqueness (art, tradition), and traditional games (Cak Bur, sipak tekong, patok lele, badia batuang, sipak rago, congkak, main tali).

Roza (2012) listed the following examples as the naming mistakes of the region names in West Sumatera.

  • Bandara Tabing , Padang

  • Ganting, Padang Timur

  • Lubuk Begalung

Three words: Tabing, Ganting, Begalung donot belong to Indonesian and Minangkabaunese. The use of these three region naming are incorrect. The airport naming `Tabing' has been, for example, used in a long time after the government get it as the result of national competition. The name was used since the government announced the winner using the ministrial decree for it. This is one example of how the government also makes the unacceptable naming in West Sumatera. The right naming should be Bandara Tabiang, Gantiang, Padang Timur, and Lubuak Bagaluang.

The other examples of the right regional naming using the words or phrases of Minangkabaunese in West Sumatera according to Roza (2011a & b, 2012, 2016) should be the ones in bracket: Silaing Atas (Silaiang Ateh), Padang Kaduduk (Padang Kaduduak), Labuh Basilang (Labuah Basilang), Sungai Batung (Sungai Batuang), Lubuk Basung (Lubuak Basuang), Balimbing (Balimbiang), and Palupuh (Palupuah).

Roza and Morelent (2016: 26-27) reported in the following table that 70% of regional names in Padang city are incorrect.

Table 1

Data of Incorrect Regional Naming in Padang City.


No. Sumber Data Bahasa Indonesia/Minangkabau Tingkat
Salah Benar Jml %
1 Penamaan Daerah
Kec. Padang Utara gunung, air, tawar gunuang, aia, tawa 5 (7) 71
Kec. Padang Barat ujung, purus, pasir, belakang ujuang, puruih, pasia, balakang 4 (10) 40
Kec. Padang Timur ganting gantiang 1 (10) 10
Kec. Padang Selatan belakang, seberang, teluk, balakang, subarang, taluak,
bayur, air, manis bayua, aia, manih 7 (12) 58
Kec. Nanggalo kampung, tabing kampuang, tabiang 4 (6) 67
Kec. Pauh manis, luar, lambung, bukit manih, lua, lambuang, bukik 5 (10) 50
Kec. Kuranji pasar, anduring, lubuk, pasa, anduriang, lubuak,
kalumbuk, gunung, sarik, sapih kalumbuak, gunuang, sariak, sapiah 7 (9) 78
Kec. Bungus Tl Kabung bungus, teluk, kabung bunguih, taluak, kabuang 9 (6) 150
Kec. Koto Tangah lubuk, kampuang, kabung, lubuak, kampuang, kabuang, 62
pasir, parupuk, tabing, tunggul pasia, parupuak, tabiang, tunggua 8 (13)
Kec. Lb Begalung kampung, tanjung, cengkeh, kampuang, tanjuang, cangkeh, 55
lubuk, begalung lubuak, bagaluang 6 (11) 57
Kec. Lb Kilangan indarung, besi, bandar, buat indaruang, basi, banda, buek 4 (7)
60 (104) 70

3. Cultivating Productive Crops and Traditional Citrus

Using the 2016 KKN-PPM financial scheme, the lecturers of Bung Hatta University have successfully, for instance, implemented the reinforcement program for Tri Dharma in Maninjau, West Sumatera. The valued, integrated, productive, and sustainable program has been the first winner of the competition “Lomba Call Paper” in Palangkaraya Muhammadiyah University on April 2017. Roza and Tawakal (2017) presented the paper. Then, the program is expected to be implemented in Padang city (and later in 19 region in West Sumatera) Muhammadiyah's schools using KKN-PPM financial scheme in 2018.

Program and activity the lecturers organized were cultivating the cooperation school-based traditional citrus (Nipis `Lat citrus aurantifolia', Purut 'Citrus hystrix DC', Sundai `Big citrus hystrix', Kesturi`Citrus ambluycarpa') in 22 schools (9 elementaries, 6 junior high schools, 7 senior high schools) in Kecamatan Tanjung Raya Maninjau, Kabupaten Agam-Sumbar. The program and activity were organized during the program of KKN-PPM for the students of Bung Hatta University (July-August, 2016).

Roza, Har, and Tawakal (2016: 23) reported, as being specified in the following table 2, that1483 productive crops and traditional citrus have been planted in 22 schools in Maninjau, Agam, West Sumatera.

Table 2

Distribution of Productive Crops and Traditional Citrus I Maninjau, 2016.


Distributed Citus/Productive Crops
School Names/ Nipis Lemon Nangka Durian Pokat Matoa Puruik Kesturi Sundai Kapeh Jml
1.PESANTREN TAQWA 081363054689 40 10 10 60
2.SMP3 08533486597163 25 25 50
3.SMP MUHAMMADYAH 25 25 50
4.SD 36 085334865979 20 20 10 10 60
5. SMA CENDIKIA.AGAM 081363273848 51 30 5 5 20 30 161
6.SMPN 2 TJG RAYA 081266159551 22 3 25
7.SD 20 5 15 20
8.SD 32 Paninjauan 081363749947 15 15 5 5 40
9.MAN PS RABAA 081266626591 20 20
10.SD 37 081374408412 20 20 40
11.SD 29 20 20
12.SD 38 LB SAO 60 4 20 20 104
13. SMK TANJUNG RAYA 081266485052 18 5 1 24
14.SMA 1 MANINJAU 14 6 20
15.SMP 1 MANINJAU 5 5 10 20
16.MAN 1 MANINJAU 085274194111 20 20
17.MTSN PS RABAA 11 11
18.SD 34DAMA GADANG 085263794545 50 2 5 100 175
19.SDN 18 S.BATANG 082388113908 50 2 4 100 60 234
20.MASYARAKAT 30 30 20 20 4 5 129
21.SD 24 KT MLNTG 20 20 20 20 80
22.SD 16 SAWAH RG SLY 50 20 20 20 110
JUMLAH/TOTAL 310 145 38 45 35 30 68 271 56 105 1483

The seeds of the productive crops and traditional citrus were bought by the researchers in addition to those that were provided by the department of productive crops, of forestry, and of plantation in West Sumatera. Supporting seeds are also received from Forum DAS Agam.

Hence, the program and activity were inspired by negative impact of organizing `karamba' in Maninjau lake. Maninjau people never get welfare from `karamba' because of some reasons. Firstly, `karamba' is managed by people coming from other cities; Maninjau people are just employees. Secondly, there have been the dead of fish three times in a year that the owners of “karamba” got no money to give to emloyees anymore. Hence, societies were motivated to recultivate the natural resources that are not used for along time. This means that the societies' orientation is directed to think about productive commodity. Traditional citrus have, now, been sent or exported to India and Pakistan as the basic materials for perfume.

4. Conclusion

The decay of Indonesian and Minangkabaunese can be identified, for instance, through the local or region naming in West Sumatera. In fact, the present names do not belong to the words or phrases of Minangkabaunese or Indonesian. As it has been stated above, most societies as the language speakers including the government have made the unacceptable naming in West Sumatera. Therefore, it is firstly and strongly suggested that all parties support the efforts to rename the region of West Sumatera like through the research. It is urgently needed that the researcher starts to do documentation of naming identification and inventory of the region in West Sumatera.

In the next step, the documentation is transcribed, compiled, and recapitulated as well as consulted to Minangkabaunese and Indonesian experts. The last activity can be conducted in both the national and international seminar. The results need to be socialize to the societies and the researcher designs the dictionary writing of the region naming in West Sumatera. Having the dictionary, the government is suggested to produce the related decree (Perda) of using Minangkabaunese for region naming in all region West Sumatera. This result is, in turn, used to enrich the number of words of Indonesian. This also means that we provide the young generation with the document that will make them proud of their original locality or identity in the frame of nation building.

The next research that is needed to be conducted is about the society empowerment. Based on the explanation above of successfully cultivating the traditional citrus in Maninjau, the activity is suggested to be continued in the other region in West Sumatera. Most natural resources are still neglected. Cultivating the productive crops means creating the economis values for the welfare of societies. Besides, the program functions as the way of supplying the availability of water for societies. Finally, this program can be alternative solution for preventing the danger of landslide, errotion, and flood.

The writer looks forwards to receiving the offer for the two promising researches the writer explains and suggests to conduct above: the region naming and society empowerment program. The researches start from those in West Sumatera; then, need to be continued to those in Indonesia and other countries of ASEAN in order to meet the strategic partnership.

Acknowledgement

The researchers would like to say thanks to those who have positively and directly contribute to make the two researches finished and success in 2016. Rector of Bung Hatta University have motivated the lecturers to conduct the research through, for example, giving the funds. The Education and Culture Ministry/the Ministry of the Research and Technology Higher Education Director decided the researcher one of the winners of KKN-PPM program in 2016. Thanks are also addressed to all other parties who also helped the researchers.

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