KnE Social Sciences | The First Economics, Law, Education and Humanities International Conference (The First ELEHIC) | pages: 380–387

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1. Introduction

Communication is a key element of human behavior. People use communication to interact, socialize, share feeling, provide information, express emotion, giving opinion etc. In other words, communication is an act by which one person known as sender gives information to someone else known as receiver based on person's needs, desire, knowledge, opinions and perceptions. Keyton's study (as cited in [1]) found that communication can be defined as procedure of transmitting information from one person to another person and understand it. Communication also known as the essence of social relation by helping people to understand themselves, to keep in touch with people, to understand and predict their response to a situation.

Effective communication allows the sender to understand the emotion and intention of sending the information to the receiver. Unable to deliver a clearly message and makes the receiver understood is one of the problems that we are facing today in the organization [2]. We do have talented employee in the organization but how to make them stay longer is a big question. We normally heard that several reasons employees leaving the organization because of getting offer on higher pay, the new company gives more benefits, easy to build career development and so on.

Effective communication among employees in the organization are relate on the mode of communication to develop an understanding of strategies that foster quality communication which gives impact to any organization success. According to [3] employers and employees must be consistent, clear, complete and accurate when communicate between each other. Some of the barriers may include body gesture, language, cultural, emotions and different personalities [4] when communication breakdowns occur.

2. Literature Review

Reaching organizational goals and objectives have always been a challenge. There are many ways of meeting these goals and communication plays an integral part in doing so. Through organizational communication, the stimulation and motivation of employees could be achieved [5]. Communication consists of verbal and non-verbal. As important as verbal, non-verbal communication could also ensure a successful workplace environment. These communications include gestures, posture and facial expression [6]. Non- verbal communication is also a way a person expresses their feelings and emotions. 65 percent to 75 percent of communication is nonverbal. Our sense and thoughts about others are part of nonverbal communication [7]. As we communicate with each other, a breakdown in the communication can be inevitable as we misinterpreted the information we received. This could happen due to the improper word choice, differing communication style and individual's perspectives [8].

In the context of communication climate, it can be defined as internal environment of information exchange between employees in an organization whether through formal or informal networks. Information flows freely when the communication climate is open and when the information flow is closed it can create a negative workplace environment [9]. This closed information flow exists when an individual in an organization give their contribution however is not being appreciated. This leads to difficulties for the employees to get and give information and to take action which often resulting in the feeling of being uncomfortable and unwilling to interact with each other [10].

The role of a supervisor is also important in ensuring a positive workplace environment. Supervisor can be defined as a person in front line management who monitors employee's performance based on task given. Part of the supervisor's roles are hiring, disciplining, promoting, punishing, rewarding and any employment activities in the workplace [11].

When it comes to communication supervisor needs to communicate effectively in terms of transferring knowledge and motivation. Not just giving orders and directions, listening skills are perceived as a crucial part in the supervisory communications [12]. Sullivan's Motivating Language Theory (MLT) hypothesizes that employee's performance and job satisfaction would be impacted positively when the superior uses motivating language, giving direction, sharing feelings and explaining the organization's culture. This theory also proved that strategic applications of leader oral communication have positive measurable effects on employee's performance and job satisfaction [13-15].

The communication component in an organization plays a vital role in achieving organization's objectives. Globalization, deregulation of markets, the everchanging of customer demands and increasing competition meant that each organization must be able to manage adversities within the organization [16]. Effective communication is one of them.

Figure 1

Shows the theoretical framework for dimension of communication satisfaction by [17]. Framework of dimension of communication satisfaction.

fig-1.jpg

3. Research Methodology

The research strategy that was being used by the researchers to collect the data was a survey research. A survey is a system for collecting information from or about people to describe, compare or explain their knowledge, attitudes and behavior [18]. Under this survey, the researchers used questionnaires to draw out the views from a large group of employees in the organization Pejabat Setiausaha Kerajaan Negeri Sembilan (PSUKNS). This overview of survey and questionnaires clarified the place of questionnaires as a data collection tool in quantitative research design. The questions in survey instruments are typically arranged into self-administered questionnaires that respondents complete on his or her paper that will be distributed. The population of this research were 193 employees that came from different units of Pejabat Setiausaha Kerajaan Negeri Sembilan (PSUKNS).

However, the samples used for this research were 130 employees from different units at PSUKNS. A carefully selected sample can provide data representative of the population from which it is drawn. In this research, the sampling frame was employees because the researchers wanted to measure the effective communication for achieving organizational objective in PSUKNS. In this research, the total number of the employees were listed about 155 which questionnaires were distributed to Unit Perancang Ekonomi Negara (UPEN), Badan Kawal Selia Air (BKSA), Unit Dewan Undangan Negeri (UDUN), Bahagian Pengurusan Sumber Manusia (BPSM), Pejabat Menteri Besar, Unit Perumahan, Bahagian Khidmat Pengurusan (BKP), Unit Kerajaan Tempatan (UKT), Unit Korporat, Inovasi dan Kualiti (UKIK) and Unit Perumahan.

4. Results and Finding

Based on the Table 1 shows that there is a positive relationship between communication climate and organizational objective with the Pearson correlation value is 0.470, which indicates that there is a strong correlation between the independent and dependent variable and the significant value is 0.000 which less than 0.05. Secondly, there is a positive relationship between supervisor communication and organizational objective which the Pearson correlation value is 0.590 that indicates strong correlation between the independent and dependent variable which the significant value also 0.000 which less than 0.05. Thirdly, there is a positive relationship between subordinate communication and organizational objective with the Pearson correlation value is 0.434 which means there is strong correlation between independent and dependent variable and significant value is 0.000 which less than 0.05.

Table 1

Correlation between communication climate, supervisor communication and subordinate communication for achieving organizational objective.


In this study shows that all independent variables, which are communication climate, supervisor communication and subordinate communication, have significant correlation with organizational objective.

Furthermore, based on the Table 2, the F-value 33.820 and significant value is 0.000 which means the model is fit and acceptable and result can be used for hypothesis. Next is R square value. It is important because result will show the percentage of influence of the independent variable effect the dependent variable. For the R² is 0.452 means 45.2 percent of variance in organizational objective (dependent variable) explain by variation in communication climate, supervisor communication and subordinate communication (independent variables). Hence, 54.8 percent can be explained by other factor which is not included in this study. For the standardized coefficient (Beta) value of communication climate is positive impact of 0.299 and significant value is 0.000 which is less than 0.05. So, this independent variable influence to organizational objective. Secondly, Beta-value of supervisor communication is positive impact of 0.365 and significant value is 0.000 that less than 0.05, so it is influence the organizational objective. Lastly, Beta-value for subordinate communication is also positive impact of 0.221 and significance value is 0.005 which less than 0.05 and this influence to organizational objective.

Table 2

Anova, model summary and coefficient.

ANOVA a
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 15.384 3 5.128 33.820 .000 b
Residual 18.649 123 .152
Total 34.033 126
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .672 a .452 .439 .38938
Coefficients a
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) .552 .312 1.770 .079
TOTAL COMMUNICATION .264 .064 .299 4.096 .000
TOTAL SUPERVISOR .379 .086 .365 4.423 .000
TOTAL SUBORDINATE .224 .078 .221 2.893 .005
Dependent Variable: TOTAL ORGANIZATIONAL Significant P-value is < 0.05

In this study, all variables which communication climate are, supervisor communication and subordinate communication are significant because less than p-value 0.05. But the highest influence for achieving organizational objective in PSKNS is supervisor communication because it has highest Beta- value, which is 0.365.

5. Conclusion

Based on the data findings, its shows that all independent variables, which are communication climate, supervisor communication and subordinate communication, are influential in achieving organizational objective among employees in PSKNS. All these variables are relating to effective communication that need to be developed in the workplace in order to achieve organizational objective and at the same time can meet the vision and mission of the organization. As for recommendation for future research, a similar study should be conducted in terms of effective communication for achieving organizational objective in private sectors. This is to determine whether there is any difference of effective communication between a government and a private sector.

Acknowledgement

First of all we would like to thank God Almighty for giving us the knowledge, ability and opportunity to undertake this research study. We would also like to express our utmost gratitude and appreciation to Pejabat Setiausaha Kerajaan Negeri Sembilan (PSUKNS) and also its' employees from Unit Perancang Ekonomi Negara (UPEN), Badan Kawal Selia Air (BKSA), Unit Dewan Undangan Negeri (UDUN), Bahagian Pengurusan Sumber Manusia (BPSM), Pejabat Menteri Besar, Unit Perumahan, Bahagian Khidmat Pengurusan (BKP), Unit Kerajaan Tempatan (UKT), Unit Korporat, Inovasi dan Kualiti (UKIK) and Unit Perumahan who have given us their time and full cooperation over the course of this research. Finally, we would like to thank our families and friends who have always been there to support us in our endeavors.

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