KnE Social Sciences | The First Economics, Law, Education and Humanities International Conference (The First ELEHIC) | pages: 41–52

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1. Introduction

Adolescents (read: students) is one layer of consumers in the conduct of consumption. According to Wahidah et.al (2013) Students are learners who have registered in an educational institution called the University and have met the requirements set by the University.

In conditions that are full of technological developments, it is possible to affect a person's behavior patterns, including in terms of consumptive behavior. It underlies the changes of human habits and way of looking at various layers of society, especially in adolescence. This phenomenon has the potential to change the lifestyle of adolescents. According to Desmita [ 8 ] Indonesia is a developing country, where Indonesia also achieves per capita income of US $ 3,800 / year. Referring to Sussenas (Supriyanto, 2016) in the year, the average per capita percentage for food and non eating in west sumatera Province per March 2016 was 54.54% and 45.46%.

Consumptive behavioral phenomena are formed due to changing times and changing lifestyles. This is not spared from technological developments, online purchases facilitate almost all the elements of human needs, including teenagers. Starting from the purchase of everyday needs with online, such as food, cosmetics, purchases of expensive brands on bags, clothes and other furniture etc as a form of social existence. Included in the use of smartphones, which became one lifestyle support. With the number of online shopping media applications that make teen consumptive behavior increases. Based on survey results 72% of respondents save their money in banks, stocks, gold and piggy as much and 28% do not save the money. Tresna (2013) in his research states that there is a shift in meaning in the consumption of a good which is no longer as the fulfillment of basic human needs but as a tool of desire satisfaction in which there are various symbols about the improvement of status, prestige, class, style, displayed through the consumption of a good is an indication of consumptive behavior.

Purchase of a product can give a symbol, according to Khoirunnas [ 6 ] stated that by buying a product can give the status symbol to look more cool in the eyes of others. Khoirunnas also added that the student's consumptive behavior is caused by the sophistication of information technology in the public space with the impressions and readings open wide without limit, presenting the offer of luxury goods and tantalizing. This adds to the reference to research that consumptive behavior is influenced by technological intervention.

Negative impact of the pattern Consumptive behavior can be said to branch off and influence other aspects of community life. One of the consequences of consumptive behavior on students is that students become unproductive. Students who behave consumptively (Khairunnas, 2017) experience a change in lifestyle, where there is a bias boundary of basic needs and tertiary needs. In the research, Mulyani [ 8 ] states that adolescents like shopping activities, especially when there are discounts, hanging out in cafes, especially cafes with music, watcthing the latest movies that are running in theaters, karaoke on weekends or go to places of entertainment or other attractions on the weekend.

Consumptive behavior can also be interpreted as the behavior of people oriented to the process of consuming or the process of consuming everything that exists in their needs regardless of the classification of the needs of primary, secondary and tertiary. Often such cases are found in urban or urban communities. This indicates that consumer behavior at adolescent level is very diverse, therefore more research is needed about consumptive behavior to wander student and local student.

2. Research Methodology

The primary data was collected through a questionnaire of consumptive behavior based on Sumartono scale [11] (Likert's fourth point scale). This questionare distributed to Student University in Padang city.

Sample

The survey methodology was used to explore the consumptive behavior 347 students were in 18-24 years old from college student in Padang were selected for the study.

Tool

For the purpose of the survey, a questionnaire of money attitude was prepared. A 16-item questionnaire was developed, consisting eight consumptive behavior indicators: Discounts and prizes, attractive packaging, looks and prestige, price considerations, status symbols, conformity elements (endorse) that advertise, generate confidence, and try different brands.

Scope of study

In this study, questionnaire which contained eight consumptive behavior indicators and also demographics information will be dispended to approximately 347 students in University, Padang Regional. The demographics variables that will be analysed in this study are as follows: Gender, Age, Status (Merantau or Local Student). Testing and hypothesis assessment using Univariate approach that is two way Anova, that is to see the influence of consumer behavior of wanderers or not to wander from the characteristics they have (sex, age, long merantau and residence).

3. Limitation of Study

The sample selection according to Mappiare for this study is limited to University Students (adolescents in the 18-22 year age range) in Padang [ 3 ] . The results of this study may not be representative of a large group of universities youth populations. On the other hand, surveys are done online with a span of short questionnaires

4. Significant of Study

The study of consumptive behavior in students can be a learning paradigm at the final adolescent level (students) to improve students' knowledge about the scale of consumptive behavior. This study aims to describe consumptive behavior between Merantau student and local Student, which then as a reference design academic learning (especially economic courses) in implementing future plans according to the development of the future era. On the other hand, this study examined the relationship between specific characteristics (sex, age, duration of merantau etc) and indicators from Sumartono [11].

Consumptive behavior

Behaviors (read: Perilaku) (dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, 2008) defines as an individual response or reaction to stimuli or the environment. While consumptive behavior according to Depdiknas (in Tresna, 2013) is defined as consumption (wear only, not produce itself).

According to Schiffman and Kanuk [ 7 ] it defines consumer behavior as follows: "The term consumer behavior refers to the behavior of consumers that they expect will satisfy their needs ". Kartodiharjo states that consumptive behavior as a socio-economic development is influenced by cultural factors, the importance of the role of fashion that is contagious or causes certain products [ 6 ] . In addition, the attitude of someone like people do not want to miss from their friends or cultural illness called "prestige" is often a motivation in obtaining the product.

Consumtive Behavior [11] can be interpreted as an act of using a product that does not complete meaning, not yet used a product that someone has used the same type product from other brands or can be mentioned, buy goods because of the gift offered or buy a product because many people wear the goods.

Adolescents serve as media targets because adolescents have a high sense of curiosity to try new things. The environment contributes to changing attitudes because it becomes a more attractive commodity than the family. In addition, confidence crisis makes teenagers are in a volatile condition that arises desire to adjust to receive recognition from the group.

The factors that influence consumer behavior according to Engel, Blackwell and Minard (Tresna, 2013) include:

  • Internal Factors:

  • External Factors

Consumtive behavior theory that has been discussed by many experts / experts in the economy, it can be concluded that consumptive behavior is a buying action conducted on the basis of meeting the needs of life and get satisfaction for individuals and households. Based on the description of the factors above, it can be concluded that the formation of consumptive behavior not only from within a person (internal factors) but also influenced by individual external factors.

Measurement of consumptive behavior

There are many scales to measure consumptive behavior, as well as the many variables that can be attributed. But in this study the measurement is limited to 1 variable only, and use indicator [11]. Operationally, Sumartono has 8 indicators that become the researcher's reference in making scale that is [11]:

  • Buy the product because of the lure of the prize.

  • Buy the product because the packaging is interesting.

  • Buying products in order to maintain the appearance of self and prestige.

  • Buying products on price considerations (not on the basis of benefits or usefulness).

  • Buying products just keep the status symbol.

  • Using the product because of the conformity to the model that advertises.

  • The emergence of the assessment that buying products with high prices will cause a high confidence.

  • Try more than two similar products (different brands).

University student

University students are in the range of late adolescence age 18-22 years. According to Mappiare adolescents are between 12 years old up to 21 years old for women and 13 years up to 22 years for men [ 1 ] . In this study, the sample was the late adolescent who had entered the university age of 18 years. Arosna states that the student age ranges from 18-25 years [ 2 ] .

According to DEPDIKNAS, students are people who study in college. Students are intellectual individuals who will have the ability to continue the nation's ideals [ 4 ] . Tresna (2013) states that students are also agents of change, because with the power of students can break the government to act in accordance with their critical soul. Surely the delivery of opinions in a structured and uphold the morality of the nation always take precedence. Students by Hartaji are someone who is in the process of studying or studying and enrolled in education in one form of college consisting of academic, polytechnic, high school, institute and university [ 9 ] .

Characteristics of students in general is the stability in the personality began to increase, because of the reduced fluctuations in the feelings. They tend to consolidate and think carefully about what they are going to achieve, so they have a realistic view of themselves and their environment [ 10 ] .

Based on the above description can be concluded that the student is a learner aged 18 to 25 years registered and undergoing his education in college either from academic, polytechnic, high school, institute and university. While in this study, subjects used are active students with a range of 18-22 years, which is included in the span of late adolescence.

Merantau student

In previous studies conducted by Forster and Levie states that there are two reasons why one chooses to wander [ 5 ] . The reason is because of internal factors (because of the inner self, without coercion from others) and external factors (due to a friend's invitation or first hearing from a friend or media that attracts them to wander). In addition, the results of interviews According to Irawati in a newspaper stated that there are several reasons for someone wandering and leaving their homes among others; want to get a job, want to get a decent education, love, conflict area, residential area that is prone to disaster and power [ 5 ] . The results of a brief interview on the reasons why students wander because the access to education in residence / area of origin is inadequate. But Baird et al notes that most people choose to leave their homes and wander because of internal factors or desires of themselves [ 5 ] .

5. Result and Discussions

The sample was collected by distributing questionnaires online since May 2018 to 347 respondents, to find out consumptive behaviors among merantau student and local student in University level. Based on the data processing obtained results as follows:

Respondent's characteristic

Based on the results of the frequency distribution test of the characteristics of respondents, can be presented in the following table: Table 1

Table 1
fig-2.jpg

Overall, it can be concluded that from 347 students participating in this research, it was found that 257 people (74.1%) were nomads and the rest of 90 people (25.1%) were non-nomads. In addition, most of the respondents were women as many as 206 people (59.4%), with the age of the majority ranged from 22 years. In addition, the average length of merantau ranged from 1-4 years as many as 126 people (36.3%). This can be interpreted from the diversity of characteristics of respondents who generally are students coming from outside the region, potential to consumer behavior towards a product can be said to tend to be higher than respondents or students who come from the city of Padang itself.

Instrument test

The instrument test is a test to assess the validity and reliability level (realible) of all items that construct a consumptive behavior variable on the student or the respondent, along with the test results:

Table 2

Validity and Reliability Test Results.


Variable Item Corrected item to total correlation Crombach Alpha Information
Consumptive behavior PK1 0,347 0,811 Valid and Reliable
PK2 0,370 Valid dan Reliable
PK3 0,385 Valid dan Reliable
PK4 0,356 Valid dan Reliable
PK5 0,490 Valid dan Reliable
PK6 0,489 Valid dan Reliable
PK7 0,353 Valid dan Reliable
PK8 0,381 Valid dan Reliable
PK9 0,399 Valid dan Reliable
PK10 0,401 Valid dan Reliable
PK11 0,457 Valid dan Reliable
PK12 0,368 Valid dan Reliable
PK13 0,522 Valid dan Reliable
PK14 0,529 Valid dan Reliable
PK15 0,400 Valid dan Reliable
PK16 0,352 Valid dan Reliable

The result of the test of the instrument is the validity and reliability of the Consumptive Behavior variable, finding all the items that have all been valid and reliable with corrected item to total correlation > 0.367 and the value of crombachs alpha > 0.6 (Idris, 2008).

Description of consumptive behavior variables

The test aims to determine the extent of student's consumer behavior toward a product, which is assessed based on the level of respondents 'answers (TCR), following a summary assessment of the level of achievement of respondents' answers to consumptive behavior:

Table 3

Description of Consumptive Behavior Variables.

fig-2.jpg

The result of the test of the description of consumer behavior variable in the students in Padang City, overall looks relatively low, but some valuation of certain items look very high consumptive behavior occurs if there is a gift, attractive packaging, unique and funny, support appearance, quality or brand, quality of imported products including also if there is a discount (discount). Thus it can be concluded that consumer behavior that occurs in students who migrated and who did not migrate relatively varied.

Hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing using Univariate approach is two way Anova. To determine the acceptance or rejection of the research hypothesis can be seen from the value of the existing significance (Sig). If the value of significance is produced < 0.05 then the hypothesis is accepted, but if the significance value (sig) > 0.05 then the hypothesis is rejected, the following summary of the results of hypothesis testing:

Table 4

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects.


Source F Signifikansi Keterangan
County_on_Origin * Gender 0.167 0.683 Hypothesis Rejected
County_on_Origin * Age 0.555 0.695 Hypothesis Rejected
County_on_Origin * Long Wander 7.343 0.007 Hypothesis Accepted
County_on_Origin *Residence 1.727 0.179 Hypothesis Rejected

Based on the data table above, it can be concluded, that the influence of student consumptive behavior significant to consumptive behavior is only influenced by the length of time wander with the status of wandering student or Local student. This is indicated by the significant value or probability < 0.05 or 0.007 < 0.05 so the hypothesis is accepted or proven.

While the student's consumer behavior towards a product does not look significant from the sex, age and residence of students who are migrating or not wandering. This is also indicated by the significant value or probability > 0.05 or 0.683, 0.695 and 0.179 < 0.05 so the hypothesis is rejected or proven.

6. Conclusion and Suggestion

Conclusion

The results of this study empirically found that the consumptive behavior of student and local student wolves is only determined by the length of time factor migrated not from factors of sex, age and and place of residence. In other words consumptive behavior is no longer functional view of an item, but precedence relates to time and desire rather than interest. Social groups in adolescents play an important role because adolescents seek support for the changes that are experienced. They are more likely to imitate and act in accordance with the wishes or expectations of the group. Although the differences are not shown in real terms, there is some suggestion from within the individual to identify with the group. In addition, the social group is considered as a group that affects the behavior, values, or attitudes of a person and become a reference of the behavior that affects an individual self-concept.

Suggestion

For the development of this research model, future research will be able to add other factors that are expected to explain and influence consumptive behavior of students who are studying at University in Padang City. In addition to the upcoming research updates, researchers can also analyze differences in consumer behavior of students who are studying at the University with other universities, which can be made in the object of research. In addition, future testing tools can also be used to assess direct effect and indirect effect by using Amos or SmartPLS tool with Structural Eqution Modelings (SEM) based research model.

References

1 

Ali, Mohammad and Mohammad Asrori (2015). `Psikologi Remaja,. Perkembangan Peserta Didik', Jakarta: Bumi Aksara

2 

Arosna, Asih Dwi and, Arif Widodo, A.Kep., M.Kes and, Kartinah S.Kep. (2014). Pengaruh Pendidikan Kesehatan Reproduksi Terhadap Pengetahuan Dan Sikap Mahasiswa Di FIK-UMS. Skripsi thesis, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

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Desmita. (2010). Psikologi Perkembangan Peserta Didik, Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

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Depdiknas. (2008). Kamus besar Bahasa Indonesia Pusat Bahasa. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka.

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Jannah, Asjarul. (2016). Perbedaan Tingkat Kemandirian Mahasiswa Merantau Dan Mahasiswa Tidak Merantau. Skripsi. Fakultas Psikologi. Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.

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Khoirunnas (2017). Pola Konsumtif Mahasiswa Di Kota Pekanbaru. Vol. 4 No 1. JOM FISIP.

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Lisma. (2016). Analisis Perilaku Konsumsi Mahasiswa Ditinjau Dari Motif Bertransaksi (Studi Kasus pada Mahasiswi S1 Pendidikan Ekonomi Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Negeri Malang Angkatan Tahun (2012) Volume 9, Number 1. JPE

8 

Mulyani. et al (2018). Money Attitudes Among Teenagers. Advanced Science Letters. Vol 24, Number 1, January 2018, pp. 334-337(4). American Scientific Publishers. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2018.12001

9 

Nurnaini, Kurnia. (2014). Motivasi Berprestasi Mahasiswa Penyandang Tunadaksa. Undergraduate thesis, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya.

10 

Siska, W. Febriana. ‎(2012). http://eprints.uny.ac.id/8590/3/BAB

11 

Sumartono. (2002). Terperangkap dalam Iklan: Meneropong Imbas Pesan Iklan Televisi. Bandung: Alfabeta.

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ISSN: 2518-668X