Promising Measures to Reduce the Harmful Effects of Man-made Waste from Ferroalloy Production
This article formulates a list of promising measures to reduce the harmful impact of man-made waste from ferroalloy enterprises on the environment: (1) technical measures: replacement of the main and auxiliary obsolete equipment with new environmentally safe, allowing to significantly reduce or completely eliminate hazardous emissions and the formation of unclaimed production waste; (2) introduction of energy-saving technologies: the use of physical and chemical energy of top gas from ore-reduction furnaces in turbine generators and in the contrivance for preheating and partial reduction of charge materials elements, etc.; (3) prevention and localization of emissions due to the modernization of existing equipment: sealing and shelter of the main melting equipment, places of loading and unloading of bulk materials, prevention of dusting for the ore materials warehouses, tailing ponds, sludge collectors, etc.; (4) cleaning of harmful emissions, the formation of which cannot be prevented; (5) introduction of innovative waste-free and low-waste technologies with the integrated use of raw materials: utilization of accumulated and current waste (slags, sludge, etc.) that form during the production of ferroalloys, reducing or completely eliminating the waste dumps and sludge collectors; (5) deeper ore preparation with the exception of the use of toxic reagents; and (6) more complete and economical use of water, the creation of closed water systems, the use of modern highly efficient treatment facilities, etc.
Keywords: metallurgy, ferroalloys, man–made wastes, slag, sludge
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