Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure Increased HbA1c and Apo-B Level in Blood on Motor Vehicle Testing Officer Cilincing Jakarta, Indonesia


Diesel particulate matter both fine and ultrafine particulate contribute to daily personal exposure of workers. Exposure to diesel particulate matter in the short term and long term can cause diabetes and atherosclerosis. These health problems include changes in glucose, HbA1c, lipids, and Apoliprotein-B (Apo-B). This study aimed to analyze the exposure of diesel particulate matter associated with increased HbA1c and Apo-B level in blood. The samples were a mechanical test and administrative officer totaling 33 people and 24 people as a comparison group. The research variables are diesel particulate matter exposure, HbA1c level, Apo-b level, age, body mass index (BMI), length of work, and smoking habit. Measurement of particulate matter exposure
used Leland Legacy Pump and Sioutas Cascade Impactor. Calculation of exposure concentration used the gravimetric method. Measurements of HbA1c levels in the blood used HPLC Ion Changes method and for Apo-B, it used Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. The results were mean of Apo-B level in mechanic test officer is 107.30 and in control groups, it’s 91.17 mg/dL. It showed that Apo-B level in mechanic test officer was higher than Apo-B level in control groups. The HbA1c level in blood had ranged from 4.90 % - 6.80 %. mg/dL. The results showed there was a positive correlation among the personal exposure concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, PM1, PM0.5 and PM0.25 with levels of HbA1c in the blood. In this study, sex, age, and BMI were also an independent factor that could increase the HbA1c level. Furthermore, this study also found that sex, age, smoking habit, and BMI also contributed to increasing Apo-B level in blood.

Keywords: Diesel Particulate Matter, HbA1c, Apo-B, Vehicle Testing Officer

[1] Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Health Alert: Diesel Exhaust/Diesel Particulate Matter. 2013;1–4. Available from: https://www.osha.gov/dts/hazardalerts/diesel_exhaust_hazard_alert.html

[2] AIOH. Diesel Partculate Matter & Occupational Health Issues. 2013;( July):1–13. Available from: http:// www.epa.gov/region1/eco/airtox/diesel.html

[3] Schwartz J, Laden F, Zanobetti A. The concentration-response relation between PM2.5 and daily deaths. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(10):1025–9.

[4] Brook RD, Cakmak S, Turner MC, Brook JR, Crouse DL, Peters PA, et al. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and mortality from diabetes in Canada. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(10):3313–20.

[5] Zanobetti A SJ. Cardiovascular damage by airborne particles: are diabetics more susceptible? Epidemiology. 2002; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12192230

[6] Du Y, Xu X, Chu M, Guo Y, Wang J. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological , biomedical and clinical evidence. 2016;8(1):8–19.

[7] Sade MY, Kloog I, Liberty IF, Schwartz J, Novack V. The association between air pollution exposure and glucose and lipids levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(6):2460–7.

[8] Yan Y-H, C.-K. Chou C, Wang J-S, Tung C-L, Li Y-R, Lo K, et al. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol [Internet]. 2014;281(2):211–20. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/ retrieve/pii/S0041008X14003664

[9] Chuang K-J, Yan Y-H, Chiu S-Y, Cheng T-J. Long-term air pollution exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in Taiwan. Occup Environ Med [Internet]. 2011;68(1):64–8. Available from: http://oem.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/oem.2009.052704

[10] Chuang K-J, Yan Y-H, Cheng T-J. Effect of Air Pollution on Blood Pressure, Blood Lipids, and Blood Sugar: A Population-Based Approach. J Occup Environ Med [Internet]. 2010;52(3):258– 62. Available from: http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an= 00043764-201003000-00004

[11] Schneider A, Neas L, Herbst MC, Case M, Williams RW, Cascio W, et al. Endothelial dysfunction: Associations with exposure to ambient fine particles in diabetic individuals. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116(12):1666–74.

[12] Nelson JL. Apolipoproteins B and A-I as predictors of risk of coronary artery disease Antibiotics for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease For personal use . Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group . 2012;358:2012–3.

[13] Cromwell WC, Otvos JD, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Sullivan L, Vasan RS, et al. LDL particle number and risk of future cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study — Implications for LDL management. 2007;583–92.

[14] Rizky ZP, Yolla PB, Ramdhan DH. Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) personal exposure evaluation on mechanics and administrative officers at the motor vehicle testing center at Pulo Gadung, DKI Jakarta. Rev Environ Health. 2016;31(1):21–7.

[15] US.EPA. Health Assessment Document For Diesel Engine Exhaust [Internet]. Environmental Protection. 2002. 1-669 p. Available from: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=29060#area


[17] Kepmenkes RI. KMK RI Nomor 432/MENKES/SK/IV/2007 tentang Pedoman Manajemen Kesehatan dan Keselamatan Kerja (K3) di Rumah Sakit. 2007. p. 1–15.

[18] Sarnat SE, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Gold DR, Suh HH. Factors Affecting the Association between Ambient Concentrations and Personal Exposures to Particles and Gases. 2006;114(5):649–55.

[19] Ramdhan DH, Rizky ZP, Hardy Atmajaya. 6152 - Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HbA1c (NGSP), HbA1c (IFFC), total IgE, calcium and TNFα as blood marker candidates for long-exposure (1). In: 2nd International Meeting of Public Health. 2nd International Meeting of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia; 2016.

[20] Bai Y, Sun Q. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Fine particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis: Mechanistic insights. BBA - Gen Subj [Internet]. 2016;2–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. bbagen.2016.04.030

[21] Van Niekerk WCA, Simpson D, Fourie MH, Mouton G. Diesel Particulate Emissions in the South African Mining Industry. 2002;( June):1–38.

[22] Jansen H, Stolk RP, Nolte IM, Kema IP, Wolffenbuttel BHR, Snieder H. Determinants of HbA1c in nondiabetic Dutch adults: genetic loci and clinical and lifestyle parameters , and their interactions in the lifelines cohort study. 2012;283–93.

[23] Simon D, Senan C, Garnier P, Saint-Paul M, Papoz L. Epidemiological features of glycated haemoglobin A1c-distribution in a healthy population - The telecom study. Diabetologia. 1989;32(12):864–9.

[24] Sharma R, Singh B, Mahajan M, Kant R. Age and Sex: Important Determinants In Affecting The Levels Of Serum Apolipoprotein B And A1 In Indian Population. 2006;4(1):1–5.

[25] Lu M, Lu Q, Zhang Y, Tian G. ApoB/apoA1 is an effective predictor of coronary heart disease risk in overweight and obesity. 2011;25(4):266–73.

[26] Meenakshisundaram R, Rajendiran C, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P. Lipid and lipoprotein profiles
among middle aged male smokers: a study from southern India. 2010;1:2–6.